PERSONALITY, BIOLOGY & SOCIETY
CHRIS BRAND
<http://cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/>

Appendix 2

The 'Comprehensive Six' Personality Dimensions

IN PERSONALITY, BIOLOGY &AMP; SOCIETY, COVERAGE OF 'WHAT ARE THE MAIN DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY?' IS PROVIDED IN SECTIONS III, VII AND XXV. (ADDITIONALLY, SECTIONS I, II, XXX AND APPENDIX 1 ARE RELEVANT.) BUT WHAT IS MEANT BY SAYING THAT INTELLIGENCE DIFFERENTIATES AND EXPERIENCE CRYSTALLIZES PERSONALITY FEATURES? WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERSONALITY SCHEMES OF CATTELL, EYSENCK, FREUD, JUNG, THE 'BIG FIVE' AND THE 'COMPREHENSIVE SIX'? WHERE DO YOU AND YOUR FRIENDS STAND ON THE THREE DIMENSIONS ON WHICH PEOPLE CAN READILY BE ASSESSED BY SELF-REPORT? AND CAN YOU UNDERTAKE RESEARCH OF YOUR OWN? - THIS APPENDIX IS INTENDED TO HELP ANSWER ALL THESE QUESTIONS.



For coverage of intelligence testing, see:
BRAND, C.R. (1996) The g Factor.
Chichester : Wiley DePublisher.

"The nature and measurement of intelligence is a political hot potato. But Brand in this extremely readable, wide-ranging and up-to-date
book is not afraid to slaughter the shibboleths of modern "educationalists". This short book provides a great deal for thought
and debate."
Professor Adrian Furnham, University College London.
The book was first issued, in February, but then withdrawn, in April, by the 'publisher' because it was deemed to have infringed modern canons of
'political correctness.'
It received perfectly favourable reviews in Nature (May 2, 1996, p. 33),
Mankind Quarterly (Spring/Summer, 1996, pp. 393-403),
Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies (Summer, 1996, pp. 221-232), and Personality & Individual Differences (5, 1996, pp. 829-830).
The main practical proposals of the book's last chapter, Chapter 4, appear as an article in the journal Intelligence (3, 1996, 311-326).

For a Summary of the book, NewsLetters concerning the
de-publication affair, details of how to see the book for scholarly purposes, and others' comments and reviews,
see the Internet URL sites:
http://laboratory.psy.ed.ac.uk/DOCS/crb/internet.html
http://www.webcom.com/zurcher/thegfactor/index.html

For Chris Brand's 'Get Real About Race!'-his popular exposition of his views on race and education in the Black
hip-hop music magazine 'downlow' (Autumn, 1996)-see:
http://www.bhs.mq.edu.au/~tbates/intelligence/Brand_downlow.html




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INDEX TO APPENDIX 2
Page

Illustration showing inter-relationship of the six dimensions 4

Comparisons of the Comprehensive Six with other schemes 5

The S-scaler Questionnaire
Introduction 6
S-scaler
(Mark 3) 7
Scoring instructions 8
Report form for testees 12



{Pages 4-5 and 8-10 are best viewed on a computer screen in Page Layout at 75% size reduction.}

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1. Illustration THE 'DOUBLE CONE' of personality

The six postulated dimensions are:
1: neuroticism / emotionality / SENSIBILITY
2: energy / extraversion / SURGENCY versus introversion
3: conscientiousness / control / SCRUPULOSITY versus impulsivity / casualness
4: will / initiative versus subduedness / agreeableness
5: affection / trust versus cynicism / suspicion
6: general intelligence

The dimensions normally appear independent of each other in samples of intelligent adults. In other samples, there sometimes occur negative correlations which yield broader dimensions of e vs c and of w vs a.

















{g 'differentiates' personality;
n creates variability}










"The hypothesis that we tentatively venture may be called a 'double cone' theory of personality, which follows aspects of the personality theory advanced by the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats (1937, A Vision). ....This schematic model of personality structure and development allows people themselves to be considered as g-based 'cones' that occupy, fluctuatingly, a space in which they move under the short-term pressures of n and the long-term influence of g." (BRAND, C.R., EGAN, V. & DEARY, I.J. (1993) 'Personality and general intelligence.' In G.L. Van Heck, P.Bonaiuto, I.J.Deary & W.Nowack, Personality Psychology in Europe 4, pp. 203-228. Holland : Tilburg University Press.)
2. Comparisons

POSSIBLE PARALLELS BETWEEN PERSONALITY-DESCRIPTIVE SCHEMES / CONCEPTS

CATTELL EYSENCK BIG 5 BRAND 6 FREUD JUNG

1: Anxiety Neuroticism Neuroticism neuroticism id


2: Exvia Extraversion Extraversion energy eros / libido extraversion
(vs introversion)

3: Control, Lie {hypocrisy} / Conscient- conscient- superego judgment
Superego Conservatism iousness iousness (vs perception) ~
4:Independence Psychoticism (Dis)Agree- will ego thinking
(vs Subduedness) ableness (vs feeling)
~
5: Tender- Tender- Openness affection ~thanatos intuition
mindedness mindedness (vs sensing)

6:
g (f, c.... ) g g/Intellectance/ g
Culture


= positive r 's between descriptors at the two ends of the diagonal lines
~ , ~ = negative r 's between descriptors at the two ends of the diagonal lines

References
BRAND, C.R. (1994) European Journal of Personality 8.
BRAND, C.R. (1997) In H.Nyborg, Festschrift II for H.J.Eysenck.
BRAND, C.R. , EGAN, V. & DEARY, I.J. (1993) in G.Van Heck et al., Personality Psychology in Europe.
BRAND, C.R., EGAN, V. & DEARY, I.J. (1994) in D.K.Detterman, Current Topics in Human Intelligence 4.
EYSENCK, H.J. (1992) 'The Big Five and the Gigantic 3' in Personality & Individual Differences 15.
GOLDBERG, L.R. (1993) 'The structure of phenotypic personality traits.' American Psychologist 48, 26-34
.
McCRAE, R.R. (1994) in European Journal of Personality 8.

3. A Questionnaire

{Go to the next page (p. 7) if you would rather complete the questionnaire before reading about it.}

Some progress towards measuring the 'Comprehensive Six' by self-report has been indicated by Brand and Egan (1989, Person. & Indiv. Diffs. 10, 11, 1165-1171). In an appendix to that article, a 24-item adjective checklist is shown. On each item, the testees indicate which two of the six adjectives describe them best and which one describes them least well. Subsequently, each of the six adjectives is subsequently scored as relevant to one of the Comprehensive Six dimensions.
Results in the article suggest that the six main factors extracted empirically do indeed resemble the six intended; and a commercial product has been developed. (Called 'The Occupational Personality Assessment System' (TOPAS), it is marketed by Personality Assessment Limited from 13, Bennetts Hill; Birmingham B2 5RS.) However, further empirical progress has been made in Edinburgh with just three of the dimensions: neuroticism, energy and conscientiousness. (Arguably, these are the three main dimensions of difference that appear most readily in self-report devices and in the theorizing of Freud and Eysenck - cf. Brand, 1984, Psychol.Survey 5; Brand, 1997, in H.Nyborg, Festschrift II for H.J. Eysenck.) The present product is the 'S-scaler' device which follows. It gives an economical and pretty fake-proof assessment of the three dimensions which, for reporting results to intelligent testees, might engagingly be titled as follows.
SENSE versus SENSIBILITY (alias neuroticism / emotionality)
STOICISM versus SURGENCY (alias energy / extraversion)
SPONTANEITY versus SCRUPULOSITY (alias conscientiousness / control)


As well as its 48 adjectives for assessing these three dimensions, the S-scaler device also includes other questions about interests and attitudes that have made it useful in student research projects. The more interesting findings to date (involving some 350 adult testees from London and Edinburgh, only about half of them Psychology students) are as follows.
1. Each of the three personality scales yields an unusually good (rather 'flat') distribution of scores; and each relates at around .60 to other short measures of the n, e and c types.
2. (e + n - c) {uncontrolled eros?...} predicts approval for a package of 'sexually liberal' items (abortion, polygamy, pornography and prostitution) (r . 40).
3. (e x ~n x c) {harnessed thanatos?...} predicts approval for 'tough-minded' attitudes (eugenics, hanging, Thatcherism, nuclear defence [and, in Scotland, nationalism]) (r . 35).

The S-scaler
(Mark 3) is about your STYLES, STRATEGIES and SENSITIVITIES.
Please complete and return it anonymously, as indicated by the researcher
Below are 24 pairs of adjectives
(e.g. restrained versus ambitious). From WITHIN EACH PAIR, please UNDERLINE the one adjective you think describes you best. If in doubt, think what friends would say of you, bearing in mind the choice offered. Try to give your first response to each pair.
restrained vs ambitious | wilful vs thick-skinned | inventive vs dutiful
communicative vs mild | deliberate vs hot-blooded | thorough vs humorous
serene vs expressive | passionate vs composed | quick-witted vs dependable
vibrant vs tranquil | unsentimental vs hasty | conscientious vs unshockable
amusing vs hard-working | excitable vs level-headed | placid vs outspoken
meticulous vs imaginative | realistic vs compassionate | vivacious vs sedate
unusual vs attentive | sentimental vs purposeful | equable vs influential
businesslike vs rebellious | cool-headed vs loving | dashing vs long-suffering
Personal code (e.g. use any four random letters): _________
Age: ___ Sex: ___ Occupation: _______________________________
Please WRITE what you would say you value and most want for yourself (e.g. children, education, fame, fun, influence, marriage, money, romance, salvation, etc.):
________________________________________________________________
Politics etc. {if desired}. CIRCLE any groups, movements or organizations you especially favour; and CROSS OUT any you especially oppose.
Amnesty International Animal Liberation Anti-Nazi League
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Conservative/Unionist Greens
European Union Gay Liberation Labour Liberal/Democrat National Front Nationalist National Council for Civil Liberties NATO Sinn Fein
Socialist Workers Thatcherism United Nations Organization Women's Liberation
Other ?: _________________________________________________________
Religion and morals {if desired}. CIRCLE any beliefs and practices you especially favour; and CROSS OUT any you especially oppose.
Abortion Agnosticism Atheism Blood sports Buddhism
Christianity [ Catholic Protestant ] Divorce Existentialism Eugenics Feminism Gene therapy Hanging Hinduism Homosexuality Islam [ Sunni Shi-ite ] Judaism Monogamy Naturism (Nudism) Pacifism Polygamy Pornography Prostitution Vegetarianism
Other?: _________________________________________________________
A report can be given you on your S-scaler result. Would you like this? Circle:: YES / NO.
THANK YOU! NOW PLEASE MAKE A NOTE OF THE CODE-NAME YOU CHOSE. THEN RETURN THIS FORM - together with any copies you have given to your relatives, friends or colleagues - TO THE PERSON WHO GAVE IT TO YOU.
How to score the Edinburgh 3D S-scaler

The S-scaler's 24 adjectival contrasts enable measurement of three main personality dimensions.
Each can be scored by naked-eye inspection, following the S-LAYOUT*
of the keyed adjectives.


1. SENSIBILITY (vs SENSE) - or perhaps emotionality
(vs excitability).
1 point for each of: wilful, hot-blooded, passionate, hasty,
excitable, compassionate, sentimental and loving.
Mean for young adults = 5. Females have higher scores.
This dimension is related to Neuroticism - although it is not tapping
'clinical' or 'anxious' aspects of N.

2. SURGENCY (vs STOICISM) - or perhaps libido strength or
visibility (vs placidity).
1 point each for circling: ambitious, communicative, expressive,
vibrant, outspoken, vivacious, influential and dashing.
Mean for young adults = 5. Scores decrease somewhat with age.
This dimension is related to Extraversion.


3. SCRUPULOSITY (vs SPONTANEITY) - or perhaps superego
features (vs bohemianism).
1 point for each: dutiful, thorough, dependable, conscientious,
hard-working, meticulous, attentive and businesslike.
Mean for young adults = 4. Scores increase somewhat with age.


* ILLUSTRATION OF S-LAYOUT OF KEYED ADJECTIVES:
restrained vs ambitious wilful vs thick-skinned inventive vs dutiful
communicative vs mild deliberate vs hot-blooded thorough vs humorous
serene vs expressive passionate vs composed quick-witted vs dependable
vibrant vs tranquil unsentimental vs hasty conscientious vs unshockable
amusing vs hard-working excitable vs level-headed placid vs outspoken
meticulous vs imaginative realistic vs compassionate | vivacious vs sedate
unusual vs attentive | sentimental vs purposeful | equable vs influential
businesslike vs rebellious | cool-headed vs loving | dashing vs long-suffering


Scoring SENSIBILITY

Score one point for each of the following keyed adjectives that was underlined.


restrained vs ambitious | wilful vs thick-skinned | inventive vs dutiful

communicative vs mild | deliberate vs
hot-blooded | thorough vs humorous

serene vs expressive |
passionate vs composed | quick-witted vs dependable

vibrant vs tranquil | unsentimental vs
hasty | conscientious vs unshockable

amusing vs hard-working |
excitable vs level-headed | placid vs outspoken

meticulous vs imaginative | realistic vs
compassionate | vivacious vs sedate

unusual vs attentive |
sentimental vs purposeful | equable vs influential

businesslike vs rebellious | cool-headed vs
loving | dashing vs long-suffering



Score range 0-8. Usual average: 5



Scoring SURGENCY

Score one point for each of the following
keyed adjectives that was underlined.


restrained vs ambitious | wilful vs thick-skinned | inventive vs dutiful

communicative vs mild | deliberate vs hot-blooded | thorough vs humorous

serene vs
expressive | passionate vs composed | quick-witted vs dependable

vibrant vs tranquil | unsentimental vs hasty | conscientious vs unshockable

amusing vs hard-working | excitable vs level-headed | placid vs
outspoken

meticulous vs imaginative | realistic vs compassionate | vivacious vs sedate

unusual vs attentive | sentimental vs purposeful | equable vs
influential

businesslike vs rebellious | cool-headed vs loving | dashing vs long-suffering





Score range 0-8. Usual average: 5
Scoring SCRUPULOSITY

Score one point for each of the following
keyed adjectives that was circled.


restrained vs ambitious | wilful vs thick-skinned | inventive vs dutiful

communicative vs mild | deliberate vs hot-blooded | thorough vs humorous

serene vs expressive | passionate vs composed | quick-witted vs
dependable

vibrant vs tranquil | unsentimental vs hasty |
conscientious vs unshockable

amusing vs
hard-working | excitable vs level-headed | placid vs outspoken

meticulous vs imaginative | realistic vs compassionate | vivacious vs sedate

unusual vs
attentive | sentimental vs purposeful | equable vs influential

businesslike vs rebellious | cool-headed vs loving | dashing vs long-suffering



Score range 0-8. Usual average: 4Report form for the Edinburgh S-scaler

Name or code:............................

As a very short personality survey, the S-scaler has limited reliability. It is intended chiefly for research purposes and for student use - to give students a rough idea of the three personality dimensions involved. Thank you for completing it. Every new 'result' helps!
Here, as promised you, marked by the crosses (X's), are some indications of how such differences as distinguished you from educated young British adults (of around age 24, range 15-65) could be interpreted. Any comments you have - whether favourable or critical! - would be most welcome.



Average

SENSE
SENSIBILITY
Stable Emotional
Composed Passionate
Unflappable Sensitive

STOICISM SURGENCY
Quiet Lively
Subdued Outgoing
Patient Energetic

SPONTANEITY SCRUPULOSITY
Casual Controlled
Carefree Conscientious
Impulsive Strict



Thanks for your helping by completing an 'S-scaler'! Could you also interest a relative, friend, or colleague in helping? (Remember: they may complete the S-scaler anonymously, using a code known only to them, and even returning the form directly to the person who gave you this report form. A 'report' will be prepared for them if they say where they would like to collect it.)
The person who gave you this would be glad to hear any comments that you may have - especially on how your 'result' here compares with any other assessments that have been made of you.

FINIS

{Author: Chris Brand, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.}


For coverage of intelligence testing, see:
BRAND, C.R. (1996) The g Factor.
Chichester : Wiley DePublisher.

"The nature and measurement of intelligence is a political hot potato. But Brand in this extremely readable, wide-ranging and up-to-date
book is not afraid to slaughter the shibboleths of modern "educationalists". This short book provides a great deal for thought
and debate."
Professor Adrian Furnham, University College London.
The book was first issued, in February, but then withdrawn, in April, by the 'publisher' because it was deemed to have infringed modern canons of
'political correctness.'
It received perfectly favourable reviews in Nature (May 2, 1996, p. 33),
Mankind Quarterly (Spring/Summer, 1996, pp. 393-403),
Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies (Summer, 1996, pp. 221-232), and Personality & Individual Differences (5, 1996, pp. 829-830).
The main practical proposals of the book's last chapter, Chapter 4, appear as an article in the journal Intelligence (3, 1996, 311-326).

For a Summary of the book, NewsLetters concerning the
de-publication affair, details of how to see the book for scholarly purposes, and others' comments and reviews,
see the Internet URL sites:
http://laboratory.psy.ed.ac.uk/DOCS/crb/internet.html
http://www.webcom.com/zurcher/thegfactor/index.html

For Chris Brand's 'Get Real About Race!'-his popular exposition of his views on race and education in the Black
hip-hop music magazine 'downlow' (Autumn, 1996)-see:
http://www.bhs.mq.edu.au/~tbates/intelligence/Brand_downlow.html




A reminder of what is available in other Sections of 'P, B & S.'
Summary Index
for PERSONALITY, BIOLOGY
& SOCIETY

(This resource manual of quotations about individual and group differences, compiled by
Mr C. R. Brand, is kept on the Internet and in Edinburgh University Psychology Department Library.)
Pages of Introduction
3 - 11 Full Index, indicating key questions in each Section.
12 - 14 Preface. - Why quotations? - Explanations and apologies.
15 - 51 Introduction: Questions, Arguments and Agreements in the study of Personality.
-
Some history, and a discussion of 'realism vs 'idealism.'
52 - 57 Introductory Quotes about the study of personality.
Sections
General problems
1 'Situational' vs 'personological' approaches to human variation.
2 'Nomothetic' vs 'idiographic', 'subjective' and relativistic approaches.
3 Personality dimensions-by factor analysis and otherwise.
4 'Superstructure' and 'infrastructure.' - The 'mind/body problem'.
5 Nature versus Nurture? - Or Nature via Nurture?
6 The role of consciousness in personality and 'multiple personality'.
7 The 'folk psychology' of personality components.
Intelligence
8 The measurement of intelligence. - Does g exist?
9 The bases of intelligence. - What is the psychology of g?
10 The developmental origins of g differences. - The nature and nurture of g.
11 The importance of intelligence. - The psychotelics of g.
12 Piagetianism: Kant's last stand?
13 Cognitivism: 'The Emperor's New Mind?'
Propensities
14 Neurosis, emotion and Neuroticism.
15 Psychosis, psychopathy and Psychoticism.
16 Crime and criminality.
17 Genius and creativity.
Popular proposals - psychoanalytic, phrenological and prophylactic
18 Psychoanalysis: 'Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire'?
19 Hemispherology: a twentieth-century phrenology?
20 Psycho-social Engineering: therapy, training or transformation?
Group differences
21 Age and ageing-especially, the role of g in 'life-span development'.
22 Psychological sex differences. - Do they exist? Must they exist?
23 Social class. - Does it matter any longer?
24 Racial and ethnic differences. - Their role in 'lifestyles' and cultural attainments.
Ideological issues
25 The psychology of politics and ideological extremism.
26 The politics of psychologists and allied co-workers.
27 Equality and Community: the 'utopian' package of political aims.
28 Freedom and Responsibility: the 'legitimist' package of political aims.
Pragmatic questions
29 Carry on differentializing?
30 Carry on psycho-testing?

Appendix 1: Factor Analysis. - 'Garbage in, garbage out'?
Appendix 2: The 'Comprehensive Six' Personality Dimensions
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