Quotes XV

Quotations about
PSYCHOTICISM, PSYCHOSIS and PSYCHOPATHY


DO PEOPLE REALLY DIFFER ALONG A SINGLE GENERAL DIMENSION OF 'PSYCHOTICISM' (AS BOLDLY CHAMPIONED BY HANS EYSENCK)? OR MIGHT THE EXTREME HUMAN CONDITIONS OF PSYCHOSIS AND PSYCHOPATHY (AND THEIR INDIRECT LINKS TO UNUSUAL CREATIVITY) BE EXPLAINED BY REFERENCE TO SOME OF THE 'BIG FIVE-OR-SIX' DIMENSIONS OF PSYCHOMETRIC PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 1990'S (SEE QUOTES III)? ONE COMPROMISE WOULD BE TO SEE INTERACTIONS (MULTIPLIER EFFECTS) BETWEEN
HIGH-will (or wilfulness) (high-ego?),
LOW-conscience (low-superego?) AND
LOW-affection (high thanatos?)
AS TENDING TO MAKE FOR EYSENCKIAN 'PSYCHOTICISM'. HOWEVER, DEPRESSIVE PSYCHOSES WILL INVOLVE ALSO LOW-energy, AND SCHIZOPHRENIA QUITE OFTEN INVOLVES LOW-will SO SOMETHING MORE THAN ONE DIMENSION IS INVOLVED. A FOUR-DIMENSIONAL APPROACH ALSO ALLOWS GREATER RECOGNITION OF THE VERY DIFFERENT TYPES OF 'PSYCHOPATHY' (PRIMARY, SECONDARY, FANATICAL AND SEXUAL). (FOR CREATIVITY, SEE QUOTES XVII.)


I
n the questioning 1960's, anxieties were often expressed that even the well-established diagnostic category of schizophrenia might need to be broken up. Schizophrenia might be just a 'label' imposed by insensitive clinicians on departures from conventional behaviour that were related only in being at once incapacitating and beyond the grasp of medicine. 'Simple' schizophrenics are withdrawn, anxious, inadequate and lacking in initiative; whereas 'paranoid' schizophrenics often seem entirely different-assertive, dogmatic, hostile, and exhibiting a strange yet impressive independence of mind. In manic-depressive psychosis-the other major psychotic illness affecting young adults-the condition itself is actually defined by a tendency to swing between the disorder's two named extremes.
At the same time, the less clear-cut diagnoses of psychopathy (mainly affecting men) and hysterical personality disorder (mainly affecting women) were similarly attacked as involving undue subscription to 'the medical model.' Instead, might they not index psychosocial distress or-if g was high-healthy rebellion against authority? Although commonly feckless and impulsive, 'psychopaths' are also admitted to differ very markedly amongst themselves-being e.g. 'inadequate', 'aggressive', or 'creative' (according to the classic British model of Sir David Henderson); and individual volatility and diversity of symptomatology is plainly expected of 'hysterics' (whose disorders may be imitations, exaggerations or prolongations of any other ailments known to medicine). Again, the wider category of personality disorders is commonly held by textbook writers to embrace the 'antisocial', the 'paranoid', the 'histrionic', the 'narcissistic', the 'avoidant', the 'dependent', the 'obsessive-compulsive', the 'passive-aggressive', the 'schizoid', the 'schizotypal' and the 'borderline' (e.g. D.L.Rosenhan & M.E.P.Seligman, 1989, Abnormal Psychology): the unity amongst such variations is hard to detect-except in putative sequelae such as joblessness and unmarriageability.
Today the climate of psychiatric opinion is different, even if many uncertainties remain. For it turned out as follows.
1. Manic-depressive psychosis could be impressively alleviated, in about a third of sufferers, by chemical means (lithium carbonate); and no treatments other than those of a physical nature (especially ECT, chlorpromazine, MAO-inhibitors and imipramine) had any marked effect on psychotic disorders.
2. Manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenic psychosis seemed to run together in the same family lines, suggesting the conditions might indeed have something in common-at least in terms of genetic factors. (See e.g. Eysenck, 1995, Genius, Cambridge University Press; but also Van Kampen, 1996, Europ. J. Person.)
3. Hysteria and psychopathy also ran in the same family lines as each other; and showed a degree of familial linkage to psychosis.
4. Hans and Sybil Eysenck were able to develop a questionnaire measure on which both psychotic and psychopathic (as also criminal, illicit-drug-using, and sexually promiscuous and sado-masochistic) people had elevated scores. To judge from its items, the measure seemed to reflect personal disillusionment, bitterness, cynicism, idiosyncrasy and a disregard for convention; and the Eysencks christened it Psychoticism (P).
5. The Eysencks' scale had a rather frosty reception initially, and it proved hard to pinpoint the psychological essence of P; but, by 1990, other workers, too, in psychiatric research, accepted some version of the Eysencks' idea that some of the above links did really exist-and that there were few such corresponding links to 'neurotic' disorders. [The modest frequencies of neurosis in the families of schizophrenics ruled out the idea that P was simply a factor of 'unhappiness' or of being thought 'deviant'; or that P differences come about merely because the deviant tend to end up having to marry the deviant.]
However, though Eysenck and others repeatedly found that MZ twins were more similar to each other in P than were DZ twins, the story of the origins of P differences still leaves other explanatory options half-open. To be sure, no-one has found any environmental factor that will precipitate schizophrenia in anyone without schizophrenic relatives. Yet the DZ correlations for P (as for many other personality variables) are very low (around .15) and suggest that the higher MZ correlation (around .45) must arise partly because of genetic-genetic multiplicative interactions (epistasis) that can only occur in people carrying virtually identical genes (see Quotes V); and that, even then, there must be environmental factors that push twins apart phenotypically (so as to explain the remarkably low concordance between DZ's reared together).
Psychometrician-psychologists themselves have not been as sympathetic to Eysenck's position as might have been expected. This is principally because Eysenck's P dimension has a strongly positively skewed distribution of scores and does not so readily emerge as a major dimension in typical questionnaire work with normal subjects-usually, admittedly, of above-average educational and intellectual levels). Thus it is often suggested that Eysenck's P reflects a mixture of 'low conscientiousness' (c-), 'low tender-mindedness / affection' (a-) and 'low agreeableness / high will (wilfulness)' (w+) -perhaps together with multiplicative interaction effects between such traits, or between them and extremes of extraversion-introversion (e+, e-).
By way of a psychological model, Eysenck and co-workers have stressed in recent years that acute schizophrenics and high-P scorers are especially good at avoiding 'latent inhibition'-i.e. good at disregarding that a word which is now succeeded by a paired associate did not have that associate previously, and thus learning the new pair relatively quickly (e.g. De La Casa et al., 1993, Brit.J.Psychiat.). This finding is important in being the first-ever well-replicated discovery of a task at which schizophrenics reliably do better than normals; and the finding looks compatible with the notion that there is some link between psychoticism and 'creativity' (which arguably requires easy 'disinhibition' of former and conventional respones).
Still, it is hard to believe that such a link of a laboratory ability (which itself looks like c-) to psychosis and psychopathy will prove more than one part of a larger story. A fuller account might stress the bizarre and largely inappropriate emotions seen in schizophrenia, manic-depression, psychopathy and hysterical personality disorder. At the extreme, in some cases (rare today) patients will 'switch off' emotion (as in schizophrenic thought blocking); but such blocking phenomena probably only occur after extreme and distressing emotion has been experienced. More commonly, all these conditions seem better characterized by suggesting that, while the 'neurotic' recruits crystallised personality features to control emotion {see Quotes XIV}, high-P people tend to switch into other emotions to try to handle problems that have arisen for them because of an initially negative and persistent primary emotion. Thus psychopaths switch from anxiety at reminders of their inadequacies into incandescent hostility and aggressive retaliation; and from proper depression at their repeated incarcerations into reckless and explosive activity and sensation-seeking.
As an overall impression, schizophrenic patients, whatever their starting point in c-, tend to present as either simple (w-) or paranoid (a-); and manic-depressive patients range between the hyperactivity of c- to the behavioural dampening of e-. While psychopaths may actually have the more chronic dysphoric mood states-and thus be tempted to use illicit drugs or to seek mind-altering sensations-psychotic patients are more noticeably peculiar. In the low-w and low-a of schizophrenia, the patient's attentional system collapses. Instead of shifting between the narrow attention of high-w and the broad attention of high-a, the patient has diminished capacity for both types of perceptual intake--like a car driver lacking both daylight or headlights. Likewise, the depressive psychotic, instead of swinging easily, as most people normally do, between speed and accuracy of behavioural output, is capable of neither the speed of e+ nor the alertness of c+: such a patient resembles a car driver who is having a simultaneous problem with both engine and brakes. The following Figure (used previously in Quotes XIV) indicates the possible moods and behavioural restrictions associated with moving towards the centre of the 'Circle' defined by four of the 'Big Six' dimensions at the same time.

{Background hypothesis as to relation between moods and personality:
ELATION - DEPRESSION probably relates to extraversion - introversion
CONFIDENCE - FEAR " " " will - subduedenss
ALERTNESS - FATIGUE " " " control - casualness
TRUST - HOSTILITY " " " affection - suspicion. }

Narrow
Attention

w¦CO
¦
¦
¦
¦ A
¦FE c
S c
p EL DE FA AL u
e -------------------- --------------------- r
e e c a
d ¦HO c
¦ y
¦
¦
¦
a¦TR

Broad
Attention

Illustration of four of the 'Big Six' dimensions of personality, suggesting how they differentiate from two more basic contrasts in strategies of intake (broad versus narrow) and output (speed versus accuracy).



In some contrast, patients who are merely psychopathic (or, as is said, 'personality disordered') might be argued at least not to have lost whole systems of behaviour (for input or output) at the same time. Thus they are left with some capacity for informed action even if they are still restricted. One way of envisaging their limitations would be in terms of four main groupings, as follows.
Primary, 'aggressive' psychopathy: c-, a-
Secondary, 'inadequate' psychopathy: w-, e-
Authoritarian / 'fanatic' personality: a-, e-
Sexual deviations / 'perversions': w-, c-
In terms of their overall 'attitudes', these four groups could also be placed at similar positions, towards the centre, in the same two-dimensional space as it projects beyond the plane of temperament into crystallized beliefs (see Quotes XXV). Such a researchable proposal may help to articulate the now widely held view-first championed in psychology by Hans Eysenck-that very different types of ideological extremist may share personality disorder in common. (Even the particular proposal that extremists of the left and right share authoritarianism in common has lately been confirmed in Russia, where a Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale was found to correlate positively with support for egalitarian ideas-McFarland, 1992, J.Person.&Soc.Psychol.) {To bring up the Figure on a computer screen, go to View and select Page Layout.}
























Four dimensions of personality (other than g and n) shown with regard to how they may sometimes appear as fused and how they may relate to social and political attitudes. {Possible Freudian equivalents shown in italics.}






Whether the extreme variations seen in high-P conditions have a basis in differential functioning of the cerebral hemispheres is still the really big question that guides much psychiatric research-though the challenging of Flor-Henry's (1974, Brit. J.Psychiat.) notion of schizophrenia as a 'left hemisphere disorder' by Cutting's (1992, Brit.J. Psychiat.) notion of it as a 'right hemisphere disorder' suggests that research may frankly have some way to go. It is tempting to think of the right hemisphere as relatively active and/or relatively disturbed in depression and paranoia-for the right hemisphere seems (especially in right-handed males) to handle patterns, expectations and superego-like functions; however, the way in which one hemisphere compensates for transmission failures in the other needs much further exploration.
Since the two hemispheres are broadly so similar to one another- offering perhaps 'back up' services for each other-it is possible that some people will handle problems by switching occasionally from one hemisphere to another. Whether they thereby switch between componential functions (like 'eros' and 'superego'), or between entire personalities (as perhaps in multiple [normally dual] personality disorder-see Quotes VI) will presumably depend on the way in which their hemispheres were functionally specialized in the first place. This is a parameter on which there are sex differences-e.g. McGlone, 1981, Behav. & Brain Sci.; Willerman et al., 1992, Intelligence 15. A tendency to get 'stuck' in the patterns of thought and behaviour that are housed in one particular hemisphere might begin to account for the strangely varied phenomena of psychosis and the personality disorders. Since males have greater specialization of cortical function, it may be easier for them to exhibit-as they do-the clinical extremes of psychosis and psychopathy; whereas a female who makes a cortical shift may more readily find herself moving from one whole 'personality' to another. Likewise, the male's greater functional specialization in conjunction with hemisphere switching or interhemispheric suppression (Brand, 1995, Current Psychology of Cognition 5) may enable the extremes of psychological functioning that (in combination with g) make for 'genius'-see Quotes XVII. By contrast, females normally seem to operate in a more bi-hemisphered way: they are more adversely affected by sectioning of the callosum (Campbell et al., 1981, Brain 104) and they show more bilateral activation during phonological processing (Shaywitz et al., 1995, Nature 373). {Questions about the psychology of the cerebral hemispheres are considered more generally in Quotes XIX.}
One last line of speculation would concern the role of g and n in differentiating personality structure. Arguably there is greater differentiation at higher g (Brand, 1994, Psychologica Belgica 34)-perhaps explaining why psychotic disorders only occur in human adults. But pilot work in Edinburgh has suggested that n makes for greater differentiation of the 'intake' functions and for less differentiation of the 'output' functions. In high-n subjects, measures of e and c correlate negatively, leaving such subjects distinguished from each other by a broad, e vs c, ACTIVITY factor (perhaps reflecting the overall outcome of eros versus superego conflict); while low-n subjects have seemed to show a substantial negative correlation between w and a, and are thus distinguished from each other principally by a relatively crude POTENCY factor (perhaps reflecting whether or not thanatos and ego have managed to co-operate and integrate, or whether both have been rejected as 'too dangerous'). - The dependence of some personality dimensions on others has only lately begun to be examined: see Brand, 1994, Psychol.Belgica 34 and Brand, 1997, in H.Nyborg, Festschrift II for H.J.Eysenck).



  




For coverage of general intelligence
and other main trait differences, see:
BRAND, C.R. (1996) The g Factor.
Chichester : Wiley DePublisher.

"The nature and measurement of intelligence is a political hot potato. But Brand in this extremely readable, wide-ranging and up-to-date
book is not afraid to slaughter the shibboleths of modern "educationalists". This short book provides a great deal for thought
and debate."
Professor Adrian Furnham, University College London.
The book was first issued, in February, but then withdrawn, in April, by the 'publisher' because it was deemed to have infringed modern canons of
'political correctness.'
It received a perfectly favourable review in Nature (May 2, 1996, p. 33).

For a Summary of the book, Newsletters concerning the
de-publication affair, details of how to see the book for scholarly purposes, and others' comments and reviews,
see the Internet URL sites:
http://laboratory.psy.ed.ac.uk/DOCS/crb/internet.html
http://www.webcom.com/zurcher/thegfactor/index.html

For Chris Brand's 'Get Real About Race!'-his popular exposition of his views on race and education in the Black
hip-hop music magazine 'downlow' (Autumn, 1996)-see:
http://www.bhs.mq.edu.au/~tbates/intelligence/Brand_downlow.html




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INDEX to QUOTES XV
Page

(i) Is there a dimension of Psychoticism linking the psychotic disorders, and linking them in turn with psychopathy and personality disorder? 11

(ii) How do differences in Psychoticism come about? 15
Environmentally?
Genetically?

(iii) What is Psychoticism? 19
The role of e, c, w, and a {See Quotes III}

(iv) Observations about particular 'high-P-type' diagnoses. 26

(v) What might be the functional advantages of Psychoticism? 30

Epilogue


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(i) Is there a dimension of Psychoticism which has psychological
reality, links the psychotic disorders, and links them in
turn with psychopathy and personality disorder?


"We have reached the stage at which the only certain conclusion is that the concept of 'schizophrenia' is now intellectually valueless and that, along with the structure of diagnostic psychiatry to which it belongs, it should be abandoned. It is actively hindering our understanding of psychological process."
D.BANNISTER, 1976, Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 29.

"Given the probable heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (S.Schwartz, 1982, Behav. & Brain Sciences 5), it may be advantageous to limit the statistical validation of experimental cognitive data to particular signs and/or symptoms rather than the diagnosis per se.
R.E.HOFFMAN, 1987, Behavioral & Brain Sciences 10.

"Four main groups of functional psychoses have been recognized since the early years of the century: schizophrenia and affective psychoses, acute psychoses of good prognosis; and chronic paranoid psychoses. The air of permanence and stability is misleading. None of these four groupings, or of the individual cases to be included within them, has been clearly demonstrated to be a diseases entity. All are still defined by their clinical syndromes and these syndromes appear to merge inevitably into one another and into other syndromes in the domain of neurotic illness and personality disorder. As a result it is not clear where the boundaries should be drawn."
R.E.KENDELL, 1987, British Medical Bulletin 43.

"....there are several indications that schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis are genetically unrelated [6 refs].... The application of consistent diagnostic criteria {DSM III for both parents and children} proved important in a family study by Loranger (1981, Psychiatrica Scandinavica 63). Instead of [any] excess of schizophrenia amongst the children of affectively ill patients, the lifetime expectancy for schizophrenia in a group of 265 children of 200 manic-depressive probands proved to be the same as in the population at large."
D. van KAMPEN, 1993, European Journal of Personality 7.







"One of the hardest parts of dealing with schizophrenia is believing that there's any such thing."
M.VONNEGUT, 1975, The Eden Express.

"Police were unable to find any reason for Kallinger's attack on [a fellow prisoner at Huntingdon State Correctional Institute, Pa.] There was no argument, nothing to provoke the incident, the police declared. The police couldn't have known that the provocation had not come from without but from within. Joe [Kallinger] had given the prison warning of what was happening within himself. He had done so by filing....seven requests to see the psychiatrist. The March 1 slip read: "Request to see Doctor for: murdering thoughts to cut apart." The March 8 slip stated: "....I am being compelled to kill with my button strangler" [a strangler sewn with buttons to which razor blades were attached].... ....[On May 10, interviewed by the chief psychologist,] Joe talked of waking up to find things out of proportion. He described his bloody thoughts of cutting and slicing [of the penis], and Dr Brian, obviously moved and horrified, summed up the horror the hallucinations had caused Joe by saying "Your are tortured!".... ....At the hearing [on May 17], Dr Brian testified that there was a contradiction between the "aberrant content" of Joe's "thinking patterns" and the cogent "way, manner, style, and order" in which he presented these patterns. For this reason, Dr Brian diagnosed him as "clearly psychopathic." It was the same 'antisocial personality', 'sociopath' diagnosis made in the past by prosecution psychiatrists, and initially by Dr Jablon at Holmesburg. ....Dr Wawrose testified at the hearing that Joe was "rather manic-depressed at the present time.".... On July 31, Dr Eun Sook Yoo, a psychiatrist and at that time the clinical director of the hospital {to which Kallinger had by then been transferred} told me that the tests showed that "Joseph is primarily paranoid. But so many other kinds of schizophrenia showed up during the tests and the psychiatric examinations that, in diagnosing him, we used the broader classification of 'schizophrenia, chronic undifferentiated type'." Dr Davis wrote that "the test established the presence of a schizophrenic process of long duration. His illness is always active and breaks through periodically."
Flora Rheta SCHREIBER, 1983, The Shoemaker: the Anatomy
of a Psychotic
. London : Penguin, 1984.

"Many [cases of 'psychopathic disorder'] have a severe underlying neurosis and they are entitled to be handled in legislation in the same way as those with psychotic conditions."
Dr J.R.HAMILTON (Medical Director, Broadmoor Hospital), 1986,
letter to The Times, 4 vii.

"M.Eigen [The Psychotic Core] argues that "overtly psychotic individuals make up a relatively small proportion of both the general and patient populations; but psychotic attitudes and states can be components of a broad range of emotional states and mental disorders....." Eigen gives descriptions of attempts to omnipresently annihilate emotional life in order to avoid emotional pain.... Eigen must certainly rank amongst the foremost of contemporary analytic therapists and theorists who are making significant steps in furthering our understanding of madness."
P.MOLLON, 1987, British Journal of Psychiatry 151.

"In Megargee & Bohn's monumental study of offender personality types, the types with the worst institutional conduct were consistently distinguished by high scores on the MMPI schizophrenia scale."
David THORNTON, 1988, in Sharon Avis, D.P.S.Report I, No.29.
London : Home Office.

"[40 recent-onset schizophrenic patients were tested] during the patients' recovery phase. Results showed that two thirds of all patients had personality disorders....the most common being antisocial, borderline and schizotypal [or, according to a different test] dependent and avoidant."
B.HOGG et al., 1988, to 24th International Congress
of Psychology, Sydney (Abstract T163).

"Factor analyses revealed a coherent P [Psychoticism] supertrait incorporating the narrower traits of impulsivity, sensation-seeking, lack of socialization and responsibility, autonomy and aggression.... I would suggest that antisocial personality disorder represents the extreme end of the P dimension, and the clinical state of hypomania represents an episodic expression of P tendencies. Perhaps the dimension may also subsume hostile, paranoid psychoses, including some schizophrenics; but, as I would define the dimensions, it would not include schizophrenics with negative symptomatology such as withdrawal, blunted emotions and lack of interest and motivation."
M.ZUCKERMAN, 1989, Personality & Individual Differences 10.

"....there does exist a syndrome that can be called schizophrenia....; at least in the florid state it is easily recognized in the clinic....; it is found in all civilized societies the world over.... [There is a growing movement in psychiatry to distinguish diagnostic categories by the drugs specific to them, the schizophrenias by the phenothiazines and manic-depression by lithium. If this is correct, many patients formerly diagnosed as having paranoid schizophrenia are really manic-depressive since they respond only to lithium. In the manic phase, almost half of such patients have hallucinations.]"
Julian JAYNES, 1977 & 1990, The Origin of Consciousness in the
Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
. Chicago : Houghton Mifflin.

"....given that the psychotic relative of a schizophrenic patient is not schizophrenic, he is more likely to be diagnosed manic-depressive than anything else....schizophrenia and affective psychosis are not very distinct entities and groups of closely related familial cases frequently include both diagnoses."
L.S.PENROSE, 1991,
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 240.

"A....weakness of modern psychiatric nosology is the whole-hearted acceptance of Kraepelin's (1897) distinction between schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder (to use the modern terms). As we shall see, these are not separate diseases, separated categorically and qualitatively as would be physical disorders like cancer and heart disease. This notion is also not true; the evidence against this view of 'separate diseases' is quite strong. ....McGuffin et al. (1982, Br.J.Psychiat.) reported on a set of monozygotic triplets, two of whom had received a hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia, while the third was considered to be a manic-depressive. Re-evaluation and the use of 'blind' raters suggested that the discordance was not simply due to misdiagnosis or differing diagnostic bias. Nor is this finding an isolated instance [Dalby et al., 1986, J.Nerv.& Mntl Ds; Farmer et al., 1987]."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, Genius: the Natural History of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.

"One class {of variables linked to Psychoticism} deals with biological variables (HLA B27, MAO; serotonin) of different kinds. A second deals with laboratory behaviours (eye-tracking, dichotic shadowing; sensitivity levels). A third is concerned with learning-conditioning variables (latent inhibition; negative priming {and Kamin blocking effect}). Yet a fourth is concerned with psychological variables (creativity, hallucinatory activity; word association). Physiological variables (EMG, autonomic-perceptual inversion) constitute a fifth set of variables. It is the variety of variables which makes the results impressive, together with their theoretical congruence...."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, Genius: the Natural History of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.




(ii) How do differences in Psychoticism come about?

Environmentally?

"By 1950, almost everyone believed that the family drives the schizophrenic crazy."
W.R.McFARLANE, 1983, Family Therapy in Schizophrenia.
New York : Guildford Press.

"Of course, madness is not just a matter of cultural fashion. Depression and schizophrenia can have a biochemical basis. Mental illness is as much a fact as smallpox or plague. But it is also, as R.Porter (Mind-Forg'd Manacles) observes, a socially constructed fact. It physical basis may be constant, but its external symptoms and the interpretation of those symptoms will vary according to the cultural assumptions of the time. To that extent, the history of madness should be located half-way between the history of smallpox or plague on the one hand and of witchcraft on the other."
Keith THOMAS, 1987, Times Literary Supplement, 4-10 xii.



Genetically?

"No environmental factor has been shown to produce [schizophrenic] illness with even moderate probability in anyone unrelated to an index case."
H.FREEMAN, 1983, Times Higher Educational Supplement, 8 iv.

"To dismiss the suffering and the deranged behaviour of the schizophrenic merely as a problem of social labelling by those who have power over those who have not seems a quite inadequate response to a complex social and medical problem. ....{However} the picture of Kallman as a bleeding-heart protector of schizophrenics, adjusting his scientific theories to mirror his compassion, is grotesquely false. The first Kallman publication on schizophrenia is in a German volume....that contains the proceedings of the frankly Nazi International Congress for Population Science. There, in Berlin, Kallman argued vigorously for the sterilization of the apparently healthy relatives of schizophrenics, as well as of schizophrenics themselves. This was necessary, according to Kallman, precisely because his data indicated that schizophrenia was a genetically recessive disease."
S.ROSE, L.J.KAMIN & R.C.LEWONTIN, 1984,
Not in Our Genes. Harmondsworth : Penguin.

"If shared environment [e.g. parental models, faulty child-rearing practices] were implicated in the high Psychopathic deviate [Pd] scores of the [adoptive] probands, then we would expect their [biologically] unrelated siblings reared in the same homes also to display elevations on [Pd]. This expectation was decisively disconfirmed.... {However} the biological mothers of the high Pd [adopted] children average about .84s.d. higher in raw score units on the Pd scale than does their contrast group, [the biological mothers of low-Pd adoptees]. If this were a standardized IQ test, a difference of this magnitude would be equivalent to 12.5 IQ points."
L.WILLERMAN, J.C.LOEHLIN & J.M.HORN, 1986,
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 27.

"It is concluded that the affective psychoses and schizophrenia are related to each other on a continuum and that this continuum has a genetic basis."
T.J.CROW, 1986, British Journal of Psychiatry 149.
|
"Crow's theory bears a striking similarity to the theory of Britain's best-known psychologist, Hans Eysenck, to the effect that a heritable trait of Psychoticism (P) underlies much psychotic (and indeed psychopathic) disturbance.... I wonder, could the theories of Crow and Eysenck by any chance be related?"
C.R.BRAND, 1987, British Journal of Psychiatry 150.

"There is no good evidence that [the incidence of schizophrenia] has changed in the past 150 years, and it occurs in much the same forms and with much the same frequency [nearly 1%] throughout the world, regardless of environmental differences or differences in language, creed, or social structure."
R.E.KENDELL, 1987, in R.Gregory, The Oxford Companion
to the Mind
. Oxford University Press.

"Both endogenous and bipolar depression probably have a considerable genetic diathesis. It is possible that depressive explanatory style [tending towards pessimism] is heritable as well as acquired, although this is untested."
M.E.P.SELIGMAN et al., 1988, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97.

"The aetiology of borderline [personality disorder] states is unclear. As with most other psychiatric disorders, a combination of social risk factors (severe abuse in early life) and biological vulnerability (genetic loading for manic-depressive psychosis) is indicated (M.H.Stone, 1990, The Fate of Borderline Patients). The precise balance of the two probably holds the key to many outstanding controversies concerning diagnostic heterogeneity.... Stone's 20-year follow-up of 502 patients strongly indicates that the long-term prognosis is good, and approximately 66% of patients end up functioning normally or only with minimal symptoms. It is as if maturation and decreased energy levels and impulsivity with ageing brought about a developmental cure."
Anna HIGGITT and Peter FONAGY (Freud Memorial
Professor, Psychoanalysis Unit, University College
London), 1992, 'Psychotherapy in personality

"Since Flor-Henry (1969) first suggested a disturbance in the usual balance of [left-]hemispheric functions in schizophrenia, there has been a growth of publications on the issue.... A mere handful of us have pointed to the right hemisphere as the focus of the primary, pathogenetic disturbance.... In the last three decades....the right hemisphere is now credited with contributing the lion's share to metaphor and pragmatic conversation..... there are reports that right-hemisphere-damaged subjects exhibit phenomena or psychological deficits almost exactly like those seen in schizophrenia-"incoherent and tangential speech", incorrect proverb interpretation, and even impaired common sense, in the form of a reduced capacity to estimate the cost of common objects..... the [neuropsychological] phenomena exhibited in right-hemisphere-damaged patients [viz. auditory hallucinations of third-person voices, disordered self-body boundaries, annihilation of will, flattened affect, delusional misidentification and formal thought disorder] are much more like those seen in schizophrenics than any found in their left-hemisphere-damaged counterparts.... eleven [of Parnas et al.'s, 1982, twelve] non-affective psychotics] with a left-sided lesion were strictly classified as {merely} paranoia or a paranoid-hallucinatory state, leaving only one "Bleulerian schizophrenic".... To my mind, the evidence linking schizophrenia with right hemisphere dysfunction is overwhelming"
J.C.CUTTING, 1994, 'Evidence for right hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia.' In A.S.David & J.C.Cutting, The Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia. Hove, UK : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

"Consistent with previous findings, the present results {from a study of home movies made in the 1950's} indicate that pre-schizophrenic children, beginning in infancy, manifest significant neuromotor abnormalities. Thus, the notion that schizophrenia is associated with a central nervous system defect that is present at birth receives strong support. The abnormalities observed in the pre-schizophrenic children show striking consistency across subjects. Six of the seven patients showed abnormalities in the left hand/arm during the first two years of life."
Elaine F. WALKER, 1994, in A.S.David & J.C.Cutting, The Neuro- psychology of Schizophrenia. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

"Through the great resources of the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health, 66 identical [twin] pairs were investigated [for schizophrenia] over six years.... the concordance rate in these identical twins was almost four times higher than in fraternals; it is about the same as in multiple sclerosis.... Most of the affected twins had at least some degree of intellectual impairment and neurological abnormalities could be found in more than a half.... Both this and other studies have found evidence of abnormal functioning in the temporal lobe, involving the speech area, and also in the frontal lobe when the subject does an intellectual test.... Viruses are certainly capable of causing the kind of localised damage seen in the midbrain of some schizophrenic patients, but different research groups bitterly disagree at present as to whether or not influenza, for instance, can be implicated."
Hugh FREEMAN, 1994 Times Higher Educational Supplement, 21 x. (Reviewing new books on schizophrenia, authors including I.Gottesman and Eve Johnstone.)








(iii) What is Psychoticism?
Especially: the possible roles of e, c, w, and a {see Quotes III}.


"....both depression and schizophrenia are associated with a breakdown in the processes of interhemispheric inhibition that mediate perceptual asymmetry."
Olive JOHNSON & D.CROCKETT, 1982,
Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 91.

"It seems to us....plausible to explain our results in terms of an affective-motivational deficit common to both psychopaths and schizophrenics...."
R.HOWARD et al., 1984, Personality & Individual Differences.

"...there is an overlap between the symptoms of mania and schizophrenia and between the symptoms of depression and Parkinson's disease. The hypothesis presented here suggests that there is an overlap between these pathologies and a third dimension: the neuroanatomical substrates involved. Thus, overactivation of forebrain dopamine circuitry and the resultant disruption of thalamocortical positive feedback....leads to rapid switching and insufficient filtering of cortical information, manifested clinically as psychosis and dyskinesia. The underactivation of forebrain dopamine circuitry with the enhancement of thalamo-cortical positive feedback leads to the preservation of a fixed set of cortical activity manifested clinically by depression and Parkinson's disease."
N.R.SWERDLOW & G.F.KOOB, 1987, Behavioral & Brain Sciences 10.

"If psychosis is not the symptom of a hidden-as yet undiagnosed, or undiagnosable-brain disease, then what is it? The answer, I'm afraid, is {only} too simple: it is a form of behavior. Specifically, psychosis is behavior judged to be bad-injurious to the self or others. It is also a form of behavior closely connected with dishonesty: a person who is honest with himself-"true to himself", as Socrates put it-cannot, in my opinion, be or become psychotic, although he may, of course, be called psychotic."
Thomas SZASZ, 1987, Insanity. New York : Wiley DePublisher.

"The 6,000 members of the National Schizophrenia Fellowship know very well from personal experience and from other members of their families that schizophrenia is a very real and very distressing disease which can be fairly accurately diagnosed in its more serious states but, as with all other diseases, can sometimes be misdiagnosed in its early stages or milder forms. A quarter of a million people in Britain today suffer from schizophrenia and people [who deny the validity and biological basis of the diagnosis] increase the misery of them and their families by denying the reality of this severely disabling illness."
Judith WELEMINSKY, 1988, New Statesman & Society, 9 ix.

"[Gordon Claridge, Origins of Mental Illness] stresses that a crucial feature of the psychotic brain is the loosening, or relative failure, of its homeostatic regulation, and that this explains the extreme variability of psychotic behaviour. Most interesting is the thesis that homeostatic dysregulation not only refers to the vertical or hierarchical but also to the horizontal organization of brain processes."
P.BECKER, 1988, European Journal of Personality 2.

"The construct of adequacy of ego functions refers to the individual's abilities to perform such tasks as: delaying gratification when necessary; tolerating dysphoric affects such as anxiety, depression, shame, or guilt;
discriminating between consensually verifiable perceptions of the
environment and internally determined fantasies (reality testing); and
other adaptive tasks.
Normal and neurotic people are typified by intact and adequate capacities to manage these adaptive tasks, whereas psychotic individuals have extremely impaired skills in these areas."
G.STRICKER & J.R.GOLD, 1988, Journal of Personality Disorder 2.

"Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) is one measure of central nervous system "neurointegrative" function. The capacity of an individual to track a smoothly swinging pendulum without an undue number of saccadic intrusions appears to be a marker for involuntary attention, that is, the ability to center on a target and maintain that focus. SPEM is known to be impaired in schizophrenic patients and in the close biologic relatives of schizophrenic patients, to be a trait rather than a state marker, and to have a substantial genetic basis... [College students] who were poor trackers demonstrated impaired capacity for interpersonal enjoyment, relatedness, sexual satisfaction and friendship."
H.KLAR, L.J.SIEVER & E.COCCARO, 1988,
Journal of Personality Disorders 2.

"If our theory [of greater right-hemisphere activity in schizophrenia, due to release from left-hemisphere inhibition] is true, any extensive dysfunction of the left temporal cortex due to disease, circulatory changes, or stress-induced alteration of its neurochemistry should release the right temporal cortex from its normal inhibitory control. When temporal lobe epilepsy is caused by a lesion on the left temporal lobe, thus (presumably) releasing the right from its normal inhibition, a full 90 per cent of the patients develop paranoid schizophrenia with massive auditory hallucinations. When the lesion is on the right temporal lobe alone, fewer than 10 per cent develop such symptoms. In fact, this latter group tend to develop a manic-depressive psychosis."
Julian JAYNES, 1977 & 1990, The Origin of Consciousness in the
Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
. Chicago : Houghton Mifflin.

"A search for causal explanations takes place to "make sense" of the world. This frequently occurs when events violate expectations and achieve prominence.... If schizophrenia is characterised by (a) awareness of aspects of the environment not normally attended to and (b) a reduction of the influence of past regularities on current perception, then abnormal causal relationships may be inferred on the basis of a single co-occurrence."
D.HEMSLEY, 1990, in G.Huber, Idiopathische Psychosen. Stuttgart: Schattauer.

"For Bleuler, [the underlying psychological deficit in schizophrenia] was an abnormality of 'association', a psychological model fashionable at the time. For C.Frith (1992, The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia) it is the newly minted 'meta-representation'."
K.BARRETT, 1993, British Journal of Psychiatry 163.

"Let us call psychotics S and normals N. Then {my} theory states that S:N = P=:P-. I have discussed a dozen or more attempts to test this deduction (Eysenck, 1992, A Hundred Years of Personality Research, from Heymans to Modern Times), and nearly all have been successful. In the list of variables used to illustrate {this} proportionality criterion, I have on purpose included several different types of measures. One class deals with biological variables (HLA B27, MAO; serotonin). A second deals with laboratory behaviours (eye-tracking; dichotic shadowing; sensitivity levels). A third is concerned with learning-conditioning variables (latent inhibition, negative priming). Yet a fourth is concerned with psychological variables ) creativity, hallucinatory activity). Physiological variables (EMG, autonomic-perceptual inversion) constitute yet a fifth set of variables. It is the variety of variables which makes the results impressive, together with the theoretical congruence; to obtain successful results over such a wide array of variables suggests that the underlying hypothesis may be along the right lines. One would have expected that Van Kampen (1993, 'A critical evaluation of Eysenck's Psychoticism model', Eur.J.Person.) might have mentioned this unique success story of the theory and its associated measuring instrument, the P scale, in his evaluation, but any such hope would have been disappointed."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, 'How valid is the Psychoticism scale? A comment on the Van Kampen critique.' European Journal of Personality 9.

"The concept of cognitive inhibition is only one of the many experimental paradigms used to investigate the states and selectivity of processing information which have recently been applied to the assessment of possibly creative dysfunction in mental health (Power, 1991, Behav. Psychotherapy 19). Incoming information has to be narrowed down, and irrelevant information selectively excluded, a process which is postulated to occur through a balancing of facilitatory processing of task-relevant stimuli and the inhibition of task-irrelevant ones. Schizophrenia is postulated to be characterized by a breakdown of this balance, in the sense that the inhibitory part of the mechanism is now working properly, so that the failure of inhibitory processes produces overinclusiveness (Frith, 1979; Beech et al., 1989, Br.J.Clin.Psychol.28). ....An experimental paradigm for such cognitive inhibition is that of negative priming....in which a distractor object which had previously been ignored is subsequently re-presented as the target object to be named, classified, or otherwise dealt with. {Normally} these processes take longer than if there had been no prior presentation. ....as Beech et al. (1990, Person.&Indiv.Diffs) have shown, a small dose of chlorpromazine in normal subjects significantly increased the negative priming effect, as compared to placebo. ....[likewise] in latent inhibition [of conditioning to a previously unreinforced CS] the link sign-significate is counter-indicated. ....Baruch et al. (1988, J.Nerv.&Mntl Ds) found an abolition of latent inhibition in acute schizophrenics, but not in chronic schizophrenics or normals. ....There is a large body of evidence that latent inhibition can be attenuated or abolished in rats by dopamine agonists such as amphetamine, and can also be increased with dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine (see Lubow et al., 1992, Person.& Indiv.Diffs 13)."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, Genius: the Natural History of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.



e-

"It is suggested that scales which assess the construct of schizophrenism, or 'interpersonal aversiveness' may be most central to Meehl's (1962) 'integrative neural deficit' or genetic predisposition to schizotypy.... Of the four schizotypal indicators originally suggested by Meehl, it is [arguably] 'interpersonal aversiveness' which is most centrally relevant to schizotaxia."
A.RAINE, 1987, 'Validation of schizoid personality scales....in a
criminal population'. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 26.



c-

"....schizophrenics' preconscious processes can be seen as having a greater effect upon awareness, either through a defect in the inhibition of further processing of unwanted material, or a failure to inhibit at a preconscious level."
A.BEECH & G.CLARIDGE, 1987, British Journal of Psychology 78.

"Latent inhibition is observed when a neutral stimulus (e.g. a light or tone) is initially exposed to a subject without reinforcement; this pre-exposure retards subsequent learning when the stimulus is made to signal reinforcement. Latent inhibition thus appears to reflect a form of learned inattention.... We have recently tested a group of schizophrenics in an auditory learning task incorporating a masking procedure and designed to measure latent inhibition.... The chronic group showed significant latent inhibition, as did a group of normals (i.e. slower formation of an association to the pre-exposed stimulus). As predicted, in the acute group latent inhibition was disrupted."
J.A.GRAY & I.BARUCH, 1987, Behavioral & Brain Sciences 10.

"We start with the twin observations that there appears to exist a relationship between psychopathology and genius (Richards, 1981, Genetic Psychology Monographs 103), and that close relatives of schizophrenics (although not schizophrenics themselves) are unusually creative (Eysenck, 1983, Roeper Review 5).... It is also known that Psychoticism has strong genetic antecedents. What lies between DNA and personality? Creative people and high P scorers are characterized by a trend towards associative overinclusiveness (as are schizophrenics); this may constitute the essential feature of creativity, i.e. an unusually wide supply of associative ideas. What may lie at the base of overinclusiveness? One possible cause may be an absence of latent inhibition (Lubow, 1989, Latent Inhibition and Conditional Attention Theory. CUP), a theory according to which schizophrenics fail to note experienced associations which would inhibit the calling up of a wide set of associations to certain experimentally manipulated stimuli. High P scorers also have been found to have little latent inhibition.... Note that already Bleuler talked about the "loosening of associated threads" in schizophrenia, and Lubow went on to portray such behaviour in terms of a failure to attend to appropriate context information.... We now have a complete chain from DNA through dopaminergic functioning to latent inhibition, psychoticism, overinclusiveness, creativity and genius."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1993, in J.Hettema & I.J.Deary,
Foundations of Personality. Dordrecht : Kluwer.

"Male primary school children (N=90) with a mean age of 11 years....[showed] a significant negative correlation (partial r = -.57 after controlling for age and social desirability.... between [an] attitude to authority measure and Psychoticism."
K.RIGBY & P.T.SLEE, 1993, Personality & Individual Differences 14.

"The performance of [Eysenck's] Psychoticism scale [in my research on 1,095 normal volunteer subjects] is interesting to note in the light of Eysenck's claim that this scale describes a vulnerability to psychosis generally. The location of the P scale on [the factor of] 'impulsive nonconformity' [and not on 'unusual experiences', 'cognitive disorganisation' or 'introvertive anhedonia'] is consistent with its relationships to other temperamental traits. Zuckerman (1989, Person.&Indiv.Diffs 11) described the P dimension in a large-scale factor analysis.....and felt that antisocial personality disorder falls at its extreme end. In this sense, then, Eysenck's approach may have captured only one aspect of personality relevant to psychosis. More importantly, it may not be an aspect particularly central to the study of schizotypal personality."
O.MASON, 1995, 'A confirmatory factor analysis of the
structure of schizotypy.' European Journal of Personality 9.




w-

"The 'inadequate personality' shows, according to Fuselier (1981), 'ineffective and inept responses to social and emotional and physical stress.' He has a history of losing and is often from a poor functioning family background. He is impulsive and will often change his demands. For example....one [hostage-taker with an] inadequate personality [initially demanded] the release of friends from jail and one million dollars in gold. He settled for a sandwich and a six pack of beer."
Shirley MACLEAN, 1986, Report of Directorate of Psychological Services, Series I, No. 25. London : Home Office, Prison Department.

"[A collation of several studies] suggests that the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are not due to structural defects in the "hard wiring" or neuronal circuitry involved in attention, learning, remembering, and thinking, but rather involve "volitional" control processes that require effort and attentional capacity."
P.N.TARIOT & H.WEINGARTNER, 1986,
Archives of General Psychiatry 43.

We propose that the negative signs of schizophrenia reflect a defect in the initiation of spontaneous action, while the positive symptoms reflect a defect in the monitoring of action."
C.D.FRITH & J.D.DONE, 1988, British Journal of Psychiatry 153.



a-

"The purpose of paranoia is....to ward off an idea that is incompatible with the ego, by projecting its substance into the external world."
FREUD, 1895, 'Draft H. Paranoia'.

"He alone has the key to the schizoid temperament who has recognised that the majority of schizoids are not either oversensitive or cold, but that they are oversensitive and cold at the same time, and that in quite different proportions."
E.KRETSCHMER, 1925, Physique and Character.
London : Kegan, Trench & Trubner.

"....his ruthless preparedness to murder her [Miss Anne Murphy, who was pregnant with the terrorist's child at the time] reveals a depth of wickedness which it is not easy to grasp."
Editorial re Syria's diplomat-terrorist, Hindawi
('Syria's James Bond), The Times, 25 x 1986.









(iv) Observations about particular 'high-P-type' clinical diagnoses.


Autism

"The idea that autism-a condition in which children are unresponsive and unable to communicate-is a result of a mother's failure to bond to her infant has fallen out of favour in the United States.... Family studies provide compelling evidence for genetic involvement in the disorder: the rate is 50 per cent higher than expected among siblings, and higher still among twins; as many as 25 per cent of parents have a language disorder; and 15 per cent of their siblings have some kind of learning disability."
N.HENESON, 1987, New Scientist, 8 i.

"S.Baron-Cohen et al. (1986, Brit.J.Developmental Psychol.) confirmed that autistic children had poor understanding of events involving mental states.... There is at least preliminary evidence....to suggest that a large proportion of autistic children have a specific defect in theory of mind. The profound social impairment characteristic of childhood autism may to some extent be explicable in terms of this meta-representational deficit, leaving the autistic child unable to comprehend or predict a lot of the behaviour of others."
A.M.LESLIE, 1987, Psychological Bulletin 94.

"Most children find it easier to remember a meaningful sentence than a list of disconnected words, but that is not true of autistic children.... They often fail to spot repetitive patterns in perceptual displays.... Sometimes the attention that autistic children pay to parts at the expense of the whole actually helps them. They are better than other children at spotting an abstract shape which is hidden within a larger, meaningful figure."
P.BRYANT, 1989, reviewing U.Frith, Autism.
Nature 341, 5 x.

"....autism, schizophrenia and Tourette's syndrome, in addition to involving aspects of attention and movement disorder and lateralization anomalies, also all display commonalities of neurotransmitter dysfunction, especially involving dopamine and serotonin."
J.L.BRADSHAW, 1995, Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive 14.





Manic-depressive disorder

"Jung conceived of depression as a regressive state, a 'sink(ing) down into a sort of embryonic condition....', and as expressive of an absolute dominance of the unconscious over conscious processes.... Jung underlines the extremely erratic, chaotic and rootless life-style of manics, as well as the association of the disorder with alcoholism, orality and anti-social behaviour. But he left us neither a unitary description of the psychosis nor an interpretation of it.
Ludwig Binswanger described the disordered world of the manic-depressive in terms of an ego dysfunction deriving from the lack of connectedness between the normally unifying pure ego with the a priori: transcendent categories of the transcendent ego and the experience of the empirical ego.... In his polarities and extremities revealed in the various versions of his story, the mythic Dionysius descriptively mirrors the manic-depressive patient Binswanger encountered in his clinical practice. In his unfortunate beginnings, Dionysius enacts an archetypal version of the failed primal relationship, with the resultant swings between the opposites and inability to find the centre."
J. Cappiello McCURDY, 1987, Journal of Analytical Psychology 32.




Psychopathy

"....for the psychopathic youth, everyone is out there trying to 'get over' and it is better to be exploiter than victim."
R.SCHUSTER, 1976, International Journal of Offender Therapy
and Comparative Criminology 20
.

"It is in [the] context of the other as an overt danger and as a covert liberator that one may understand [the inconsistency of the female psychopath] in personal relations, exemplified often in an extremely complex sexual life in which she finds it ' better to travel hopefully than to arrive.' Her promiscuity is compounded of a need to be desired superficially for the power it brings, which, in turn, is a reassurance against her fear of her own unpredictability and consequent lack of anchorage. For such a woman, going to bed with a man is just like talking to him amicably enough from opposite sides of a lift door. Just as she invites entry, the doors automatically close. She hopes and dreads that some day some superman will come along who can open even automatic doors. So long as the dread is dominant, she denies herself the possibility of an integrating , maturing relationship, and the face behind the mask remains always that of the pouting child, kept eternally smooth by the face-cream of dissociation and amnesia."
G.A.FOULDS, 1965, Personality and Personal Illness. London : Tavistock.

"....the hero and the psychopath are twigs from the same branch."
D.T.LYKKEN, 1982, 'Fearlessness: its carefree charm
and deadly risks.' Psychology Today 16.

"The [idea] that psychopaths fail to learn the contingencies of their behaviour (as Eysenck stated) is only partly true. If psychopaths attend to behavioral outcomes, they sometimes learn even more rapidly than normal individuals because of their tendency to focus on a small set of environmental features.... Usually [however], because of their characteristically tunnelled attention, they fail to learn of the pertinent environmental cues and hence fail to differentiate one situation from another accurately. For example....psychopaths may interact with their wives in the same manner they have treated prostitutes much of their life....
Various researchers and theoreticians do seem to agree that psychopaths demonstrate an exaggerated inclination toward the perception of environmental challenge. This tendency appears especially strong when other people are involved."
D.M.DOREN, 1987, Understanding and Treating the Psychopath.
New York : Wiley DePublisher.

"Hope springs eternal that each criterion [for diagnosing personality disorder, or psychopathy] will be so comprehensive that the exact description of a behavioral characteristic will somehow make it pathognomonic of personality disorder in the absence of any other external criteria. This is unrealistic.... Societies change and vary from culture, so it is unlikely that the diagnosis of personality disorder will also vary similarly."
P.TYRER, 1988, Journal of Personality Disorders 2.


Schizophrenia

"[Schizophrenics show a failure of attentional processing to respond to stimulus redundancy."
B.MAHER, 1983. (Cited by D.Hemsley, 1987, in H.Hafner et al., Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia. Heidelberg : Springer.

"....schizophrenics are impaired in the ability to accurately decode facial expressions of emotion."
Elaine WALKER et al., 1984, British Journal of Clinical Psychology 23.

"Schizophrenia, in its typical form, is attributable to a disturbance in right hemisphere function."
J.CUTTING, 1985, The Psychology of Schizophrenia.
Edinburgh : Churchill Livingstone.

"It is difficult to explain the findings of a raised incidence of left-handedness [in schizophrenics] and the relation between left-handedness and thought disorder without hypothesizing [left-hemisphere] brain dysfunction [as being involved in the causation of schizophrenia."
Dora S. MONOACH et al., 1988, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97.

"....[Flor-Henry] states that it seems likely that unilateral dysfunction and transcollosal disturbance arise together and that schizophrenia may be state-dependent on loss of lateral cognitive specialisation. This statement and the suggestion that schizophrenia may be characterised by abnormal cerebral organisation is possibly one of the few inescapable conclusions to be drawn from the data."
M.J.BIRCHWOOD et al., 1988, Schizophrenia. London : Longman.

"A review of research....led to the suggestion that the basic disturbance in schizophrenia is 'a weakening of the influences of stored memories of regularities or previous input on current perception'.... {In accordance with this, acute schizophrenic patients are better at avoiding 'latent inhibition' and Kamin's blocking effect.} The core cognitive abnormality may result from a disturbance in any of the brain structures involved in the prediction of subsequent sensory input....
Among the most prominent features of delusional thinking is an abnormal view of the relationships between events. As Schneider (1930) put It "meaningful connections are created between temporarily coincident external impressions...." Similarly, Arieti (1974) observed "patients see non-fortuitous coincidences everywhere".... Such clinical observations may be linked to the present model."
David R. HEMSLEY, 1993, 'A simple (or simplistic?) cognitive
model for schizophrenia'. Behaviour Research & Therapy 31.

"Numerous teams have....found that the structural and functional abnormalities in the brains of schizophrenics tend to be concentrated in the left hemisphere."
Phyllida BROWN, 1994, 'Understanding the inner voices.'
New Scientist, 9 vii.

"[New brain imaging results] pinpoint limbic structures such as the cingulate gyrus as providing important routes of information between the frontal lobe and other brain regions implicated in schizophrenia."
M.S.BUCHSBAUM, 1995, Nature 378, 9 xi.



(v) What might be the functional advantages of Psychoticism?
{See also Quotes XVII}


"The reasonable man adapts himself to the world: the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man."
'John Tanner', M.R.I.C. (Member of the Rich and Idle Classes),
in his 'The Revolutionist's Handbook and Pocket Companion'.
In George Bernard Shaw's Man and Superman.

"The perfect distinctness of all dream-representations, which pre-suppose absolute faith in their reality, recall the conditions that appertain to primitive man, in whom hallucination was extraordinarily frequent, and sometimes simultaneously seized entire communities, entire nations. Therefore, in sleep and dreams we once more carry out the task of early humanity."
NIETZSCHE, Human, All-Too-Human.
New York : Russell & Russell, 1964.

"Why, in the slang of the evolutionist, was [schizophrenia] selected for? And at what period long, long ago, since [the] genetic predisposition is present all over the world?... The selective advantage of such genes was the bicameral mind evolved by natural and human selection over the millennia of our early civilizations. The genes involved, whether causing what to conscious men is [some] enzyme deficiency or other, are the genes that were in the background of the prophets and the 'sons of the nabiim' and bicameral man before them.
Another advantage of schizophrenia, perhaps evolutionary, is tirelessness.... [schizophrenics] are capable of tremendous feats of endurance. They are not fatigued by examinations lasting many hours. They may move about day and night, or work endlessly without any sign of being tired. Catatonics may hold an awkward position for days that they reader could not hold for more than a few minutes. This suggests that much fatigue is a product of the subjective conscious mind, and that bicameral man, building the pyramids of Egypt, the ziggurats of Sumer, or the gigantic temples at Teotihuacan with only hand labor, could do so far more easily than could conscious, self-reflective men."
Julian JAYNES, 1977 & 1990, The Origin of Consciousness in the
Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
. Chicago : Houghton Mifflin.

"Vain and ruthlessly ambitious, [Joseph Goebbels] was a less ostentatious spendthrift than Goering, while his numerous amours did nothing to impoverish his infinite capacity for work. A schizophrenic, alternating wishful thinking with hard-faced realism, he retained Hitler's confidence to the last, and like his Führer chose immolation for himself and his family rather than surrender."
Chambers Biographical Dictionary, 1990.

"A....line of investigation would suggest a significant correlation between Psychoticism and creativity as measured by current creativity (trait) tests, such as the Wallach & Kogan (1965) and Torrance (1974) tests. Several such studies have been reported....The first was carried out by Kidner (1978, Ph.D. thesis), in a study using 37 male and 31 female subjects, mostly students, teachers and nurses. ....The raw correlations indicate that the index of creativity {creativity with intelligence score subtracted} was correlated significantly with P (r = .31). ....In another experiment, Kidner [used] 62 subjects....P was found to correlate with acceptance of culture (r = -.53), with the Wallach & Kogan originality tests (values all positive, but rather lower than before) [and] authoritarianism (-.57).... ....The only study which has failed to find a significant correlation between P and creativity is reported in a paper by McCrae (1987) which succeeded in finding correlations of around .40 {between creativity measures} the personality trait of 'openness.'"
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, Genius: the Natural History of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.



Epilogue

"Rawlings et al. (1994, Person.&Indiv.Diffs)....using recorded musical excerpts....found that P is related to liking for heavy metal music....and for dissonant {chord} triads (augmented, diminished, atonal)."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, Genius: the Natural History of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.

"....over the past twenty years, following a century of misunderstanding and maltreatment of people with psychotic experiences, it has gradually come to be acknowledged that psychosis is a concept amenable to empirical investigation and also to psychological therapy."
Carolyn JOHN, 1995, Behaviour Research & Therapy 34.

"[Van Kampen's (1993, Europ.J.Person.7)] account of the P scale never mentions the large body of evidence supporting its construct validity....."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, 'How valid is the Psychoticism scale?' Europ.J.Person.9.
|
"....in fact, things are not as simple as Eysenck suggests, and in our original publication many criticisms are levelled at P that Eysenck [passes] over in silence. ....Of course, there are some odd findings that might be interpreted in line with Eysenck's P dimension [e.g. Taylor, 1992, Amer.J.Psychiat.149], but most of the evidence clearly points in only one direction, namely that schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness are unrelated [e.g. Kendler & Diehl, 1993, Schizophrenia Bull.19]. ....However, it was not concluded by us that the P scale is therefore totally invalid. Indeed, a high P score, albeit in combination with a high N and a low E score, seemed to be related to the schizoid personality....{because of} a component within P, namely a component related negatively to the Big Five dimension Agreeableness, whilst a second component, related positively to the Big Five dimension Conscientiousness....was interpreted as a major ingredient of the pre-endogenous-depressive personality."
D. VAN KAMPEN, 1996, 'The theory behind Psychoticism: a reply to Eysenck.' Europ.J.Person.10. (Wiley DePublisher)





FINIS

(Compiled by C.R.Brand, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.)



For coverage of general intelligence
and other main trait differences, see:
BRAND, C.R. (1996) The g Factor.
Chichester : Wiley DePublisher.

"The nature and measurement of intelligence is a political hot potato. But Brand in this extremely readable, wide-ranging and up-to-date
book is not afraid to slaughter the shibboleths of modern "educationalists". This short book provides a great deal for thought
and debate."
Professor Adrian Furnham, University College London.
The book was first issued, in February, but then withdrawn, in April, by the 'publisher' because it was deemed to have infringed modern canons of
'political correctness.'
It received a perfectly favourable review in Nature (May 2, 1996, p. 33).

For a Summary of the book, Newsletters concerning the
de-publication affair, details of how to see the book for scholarly purposes, and others' comments and reviews,
see the Internet URL sites:
http://laboratory.psy.ed.ac.uk/DOCS/crb/internet.html
http://www.webcom.com/zurcher/thegfactor/index.html

For Chris Brand's 'Get Real About Race!'-his popular exposition of his views on race and education in the Black
hip-hop music magazine 'downlow' (Autumn, 1996)-see:
http://www.bhs.mq.edu.au/~tbates/intelligence/Brand_downlow.html




A reminder of what is available in other Sections of 'P, B & S.'
Summary Index
for PERSONALITY, BIOLOGY
& SOCIETY

(This resource manual of quotations about individual and group differences, compiled by
Mr C. R. Brand, is kept on the Internet at <http://cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/>
and in Edinburgh University Psychology Department Library.)
Pages of Introduction
3 - 11 Full Index, indicating key questions in each Section.
12 - 14 Preface. - Why quotations? - Explanations and apologies.
15 - 51 Introduction: Questions, Arguments and Agreements in the study of Personality.
-
Some history, and a discussion of 'realism vs 'idealism.'
52 - 57 Introductory Quotes about the study of personality.
Sections
General problems
1 'Situational' vs 'personological' approaches to human variation.
2 'Nomothetic' vs 'idiographic', 'subjective' and relativistic approaches.
3 Personality dimensions-by factor analysis and otherwise.
4 'Superstructure' and 'infrastructure.' - The 'mind/body problem'.
5 Nature versus Nurture? - Or Nature via Nurture?
6 The role of consciousness in personality and 'multiple personality'.
7 The 'folk psychology' of personality components.
Intelligence
8 The measurement of intelligence. - Does g exist?
9 The bases of intelligence. - What is the psychology of g?
10 The developmental origins of g differences. - The nature and nurture of g.
11 The importance of intelligence. - The psychotelics of g.
12 Piagetianism: Kant's last stand?
13 Cognitivism: 'The Emperor's New Mind?'
Propensities
14 Neurosis, emotion and Neuroticism.
15 Psychosis, psychopathy and Psychoticism.
16 Crime and criminality.
17 Genius and creativity.
Popular proposals - psychoanalytic, phrenological and prophylactic
18 Psychoanalysis: 'Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire'?
19 Hemispherology: a twentieth-century phrenology?
20 Psycho-social Engineering: therapy, training or transformation?
Group differences
21 Age and ageing - especially, the role of g in 'life-span development'.
22 Psychological sex differences. - Do they exist? Must they exist?
23 Social class. - Does it matter any longer?
24 Racial and ethnic differences. - Their role in 'lifestyles' and cultural attainments.
Ideological issues
25 The psychology of politics and ideological extremism.
26 The politics of psychologists and allied co-workers.
27 Equality and Community: the 'utopian' package of political aims.
28 Freedom and Responsibility: the 'legitimist' package of political aims.
Pragmatic questions
29 Carry on differentializing?
30 Carry on psycho-testing?
Appendix: Factor Analysis. - 'Garbage in, garbage out'?

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