Quotations about

In times when psychology has come to acknowledge the centrality of 'cognition' to its concerns {see also Quotes XIII}, it may seem unlikely that any psychologist would be found disputing the importance of intelligence. Intelligence and intellectual differences have usually been thought key features of the human condition-and of the cultural achievements and social structures of the modern West. Yet disagreement between experts can indeed be found, especially when it is asked:
1) whether we too easily play down the emotional, motivational and conative aspects of human nature;
2) whether measured intelligence (most commonly 'IQ') matters much to individuals; and
3) whether having a certain level and range of intelligence (or IQ) is important to the functioning of human societies as we know them. [Intellectual differences between people may contribute substantially to the markedly hierarchical socio-economic ordering of Western societies {see Quotes XXIII}. They may also contribute to the social dominance hierarchies of those other, non-Western societies that do not tolerate the blatant use of physical force, nepotism, personal corruption and ideological indoctrination as ways of sustaining their ruling elites in power.]
Some ways in which intelligence is 'important' may be readily conceded. Intelligence seems to be more important statistically than other variables in accounting for human variation; and it usually looks more interesting than other psychometric or sociometric variables in its wider links to other variables that are themselves better agreed to be 'important'. Yet there remains the question of how to interpret such correlations in terms of likely patterns of causation. Do the correlations arise because of the operation of still-more-important underlying variables? What is it that really differentiates people? Is it differences in parental devotion, disposable income or domestic happiness; or differences in luck; or differences in some other psychological variable? {Such a variable might be 'the new IQ derived from Piaget'-see Quotes XII; or the extraversion that makes for fun (and for somewhat greater educational success in primary school); or the non-neuroticism or conscientiousness that are so often associated with success in the worlds of the uniformed services and business respectively.} Are IQ's correlates, when properly considered, mere epiphenomena of quite other individual and social processes with which psychologists should really show more concern?
Sometimes dismissals of the importance of intelligence and IQ actually reflect doubts about the existence, nature or origins of IQ-type differences- matters dealt with in Quotes VIII, IX and X respectively. Again doubts about the intelligence being necessary for socio-economic progress sometimes arise particularly with regard to group (e.g. national) levels of achievement-dealt with in Quotes XXIV. The Quotes in the present Section thus concentrate on the links between individual intelligence and other variables that are measurable in principle at an individual level. In particular, it is asked whether IQ is a substantial predictor of educational and occupational attainment. {The relevance of intelligence level to law-abidingness is specially considered in Section XVI; and the degree to which intelligence is involved in genius is covered in Section XVII. The wider relevance of intelligence differences to the human pursuit of such political goals as liberty, equality, fraternity and justice is left to Quotes XXVII and XXVIII. The merits of psychological testing in general are considered in Quotes XXX.}


For more coverage of the importance and practical relevance (especially in education)
of individual differences in intelligence, see:
BRAND, C.R. (1996). The g Factor.
Chichester : Wiley DePublisher.
[The book was first issued, in March, but then withdrawn by the 'publisher' because it was deemed to have infringed modern canons of
'political correctness.']

For a Summary of the book, Newsletters concerning the
de-publication affair, and others' comments
and reviews, see the Internet URL sites:

For Chris Brand's 'Get Real About Race!'-his popular exposition of his views on race and education in the Black
hip-hop music magazine 'downlow' (Autumn, 1996)-see:



(i) Voices from the past 4

(ii) General claims about IQ-type intelligence in particular 8

(iii) Intelligence and educational attainment 15

(iv) Intelligence, occupational success and social mobility. 19

(v) Intelligence and society.
- And what the people say. 24


(i) Voices from the past

"The soul, besides other things, contains intelligence; and the head, besides other things, contains sight and hearing; and the intelligence, mingling with these noblest of the senses, and becoming one with them, may be truly called the salvation of all things."
PLATO, Laws.

"Natural ability without education has more often raised a man to glory and virtue than education without natural ability."

"For several thousand years-even in classical Greek and Roman times, and among the ancient Chinese (P.H.Dubois, 1970, A History of Psychological Testing, Boston : Allyn & Bacon)-it has been recognized that there are individual differences in cognitive abilities, and that these differences have something to do with the roles and behaviors of individuals in society."
J.B.CARROLL, 1993, Human Cognitive Abilities.
Cambridge University Press.

"The prime author and mover of the universe is intelligence."

"....the proper function of the human race, taken in the aggregate, is to actualize continually the entire capacity possible to the intellect: primarily in speculation; then, through its extension and for its sake, secondarily in action."

"[True genius] is a mind of large general powers accidentally determined to some particular directions."

"[The epic drama, Faust] is truly the lifework of the versatile poet, dramatist, novelist, philosopher, statesman, scientist, art critic and theater manager, Goethe."
Thesaurus of Book Digests. New York : Avenel, 1977.

"Really to inform the mind is to correct and enlarge the heart."
JUNIUS (alias Sir Philip Francis), c. 1770.

"I care not whether a man is Good or Evil; all that I care is whether he is a Wise Man or a Fool."
William BLAKE, Jerusalem.

"If [the poet] Shelley [who had great respect for science, and undertook quite dangerous chemical and electrical experiments] had been born a hundred years later, the twentieth century would have seen a Newton among chemists."
A.N.WHITEHEAD, 1926, Science and the Modern World.

"{In 1853, Macaulay spoke in the House of Commons} 'against the superstition that proficiency in learning implies a want of energy and force of character; which, like all other superstitions, is cherished only by those who are unwilling to observe facts, or unable to draw deductions'."
G.O.TREVELYAN, 1881, The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay.

"You have made a convert of an opponent in one sense, for I have always maintained that, excepting fools, men did not differ much in intellect, only in zeal and hard work; and I still think this is an eminently important difference."
Charles DARWIN, 1870, in a letter to Galton
after reading Galton's Hereditary Genius.

"Intelligence is quickness in seeing things as they are."
George SANTAYANA (American philosopher), 1920.

"The infamous times you call the Dark Ages were an era of intelligence on strike, when men of ability went underground and lived undiscovered, studying in secret, and died, destroying the works of their minds, when only a few of the bravest of martyrs remained to keep the human race alive."
'John Galt', hero of Ayn RAND's Atlas Shrugged.
New York : Random House.

"Perception seems to be shot through with intelligence."
Irvin ROCK, 1983, The Logic of Perception.

"We care morally about the fate of animals because they have some ability to engage successfully in intelligent, purposive activity; but we rank human beings above animals and some animals above others because their abilities to achieve high standards of performance are greater."
Oliver LETWIN, 1987,
Ethics, Emotion and the Unity of the Self. London : Croom Helm.

"Like pearls from oysters, [a great chef's dishes] result from lonely struggling effort, and also from intelligence and quite exceptional intuition."
Egon RONAY, 1988, quoted.... in Private Eye, 1 iv.

"Every time we make a value judgment on someone's behaviour, we are evaluating that person's intelligence, and rating him (or her) as smart or not so smart."
Abbie F. Salny, 1988, in his Foreword to V.SEREBRIAKOFF,
A Guide to Intelligence and Personality Testing.
Carnforth, Lancashire : Parthenon.

"When intelligence is recognized from the observation of behavior, one is not just observing behavior. One is observing behavior in a context. Intelligence is manifest to the extent that the behavior signifies awareness or consciousness of this context. On this basis, intelligence is simply the degree of awareness or consciousness of the whole context of existence.... A related but less complete definition would be that intelligence is the total amount of information available to the individual."
D.L.ROBINSON, 1989, International Journal of Neuroscience.

"In [Mrs Thatcher's] assessment of other people, she employs one constant benchmark which is revealing of her strengths and weaknesses. Never does she mention speaking or management ability. 'Sheer brain power' is all that matters. Her appointees to high positions who did not appear at first glance to pass her "Is he one of us?" test were almost invariably those of clearly outstanding intellect - Reggie Maudling, Ian Gilmour, Chris Patten."
Robin OAKLEY, 1989, The Times, 3 v.

"I now think that there is some correlation between the most effective clever people and eventual spirituality.... Both Neumann [(1903-1957) who invented the modern computer and prevented Stalin being succeeded by Beria] and my daughter [by far the cleverest and best person in my immediate circle of family and friends] chuckled in the last stages of their cancer as they surprised their families by turning deeply religious."
Norman MACRAE, 1989, Sunday Times, 24 xii.

"After [his] marriage, [the American composer, Charles Ives'] business career and his creative maturity bloomed together. With a partner he founded Ives & Myrick, which [by 1915] had grown into the largest insurance agency in the country.... At the same time, he gave himself completely to his most visionary musical ideas." Jan SWAFFORD, 1992, The New Guide to Classical Music. New York : Random House.

"Families, when a child is born
Want it to be intelligent.
I, through intelligence,
Having wrecked my whole life,
Only hope the baby will prove
Ignorant and stupid.
Then he will crown a tranquil life
By becoming a Cabinet Minister."
SU TUNG-PO (1936-1101)
'On the birth of his son',
translated by Arthur Waley
170 Chinese Poems, 1918.

"Stupid men are often right. They have the advantage of understanding essentials."
Lord Charles Beresford.

"It's good to suffer. Don't complain. Bear, bow, accept-and be grateful that God has made you suffer. For this makes you better than the people who are laughing and happy. If you don't understand this, don't try to understand. Everything bad comes from the mind, because the mind asks too many questions. It is blessed to believe, not to understand. So if you didn't pass your exams, be glad of it. It means that you are better than the smart boys who think too much and too easily."
'Ellsworth Touhey', in Ayn RAND's
The Fountainhead.
London : Cassell, 1947.

"Theories about intelligence usually over-rate the value of intelligence. Brains are useful, but moral character makes a higher contribution to society, and altruism ought to be admired as much as personal achievement."
Mary KENNY, 1984, Sunday Telegraph, 26 viii.

"[Colonel-Genera Volkogonov, the official biographer of Stalin,] said people frequently underestimated Stalin's intellectual powers and pointed out that he ran the Soviet Union for three decades without ever having a secretary, a speech writer or any confidant; and during that time he wrote thirteen volumes of published works, and two unpublished, all in long-hand."
Nicholas BERESTON, 1989, The Times, 11 iii.

"Keen concern with the intellect is not in the best interests of a balanced and healthy life."
Joan FREEMAN (President, 'European Council for High Ability'),
1989, Sunday Times, 30 iv.

(ii) General claims about IQ-type intelligence in particular

"....at least one mental character of the highest 'civic worth', namely intelligence, can be reliably measured and appears to be inherited."
Reported (as a finding of McDougall, Burt and Flugel, 1907, from
a study conducted at the Dragon School, Oxford) by Cyril BURT,
1952, Intelligence and Fertility.

"The chief determiner of human conduct is the unitary mental process which we call intelligence.... ....The intelligence controls the emotions and the emotions are controlled in proportion to the degree of intelligence.... It follows that if there is little intelligence the emotions will be uncontrolled and whether they be strong or weak will result in actions that are unregulated , uncontrolled and, as experience proves, usually undesirable. Therefore, when we measure the intelligence of an individual and learn that he has so much less than normal as to come within the group that we call feeble-minded, we have ascertained by far the most important fact about him."
H.H.GODDARD, 1919, Psychology of the Normal and Subnormal.
New York : Dodd, Mean & Co.

"[Intelligence, to the psychologist] is intellectual, not emotional or moral....; it is not limited to any particular kind of work, but enters into all we do or say or think. Of all our mental qualities, it is the most far-reaching.... Fortunately it can be measured with accuracy and ease."
Cyril BURT, 1933, in a BBC radio broadcast.

"[Terman's 1000 Californian 'Whizz Kids', identified c. 1930 as having IQ > 140] were, on average, at each age, taller, heavier, healthier, more athletic, as well as being much more advanced scholastically than the matched control group...... They were rated by teachers, peers and other contacts as having greater perseverance, self-confidence and a greater sense of humour than the matched controls.... They were keen on collecting and were more knowledgeable about play and games.... Teachers rated their preferences of character and their social attitudes as more wholesome, and they were rated as having much greater emotional stability.... In follow-up studies they went into better jobs, earned a higher income, and had superior achievements in the arts, in science, and in all practical human endeavours, than the average individual.... They were....less delinquent and had less marital problems.... The Whizz Kids exercised more forethought, were rated as better leaders, and they were considered to be more modest.... "
V.SEREBRIAKOFF (President of UK Mensa), 1988,
A Guide to Intelligence and Personality Testing.
Carnforth, Lancashire : Parthenon.

"Enough has already been learned [from my researches] to demonstrate that children of IQ 140 or above are potentially a nation's most precious asset. The demonstration that this is true should be well worth the $150,000 which the research....has cost to date."
Lewis M. TERMAN, 1947, Psychological Approaches to the Biography
of Genius
. London : Eugenics Society and Hamish Hamilton.

"Intelligence will enter into everything the child says, thinks, does or attempts, both while he is at school and later on." Sir Cyril BURT, 1947.

"Despite the many shortcomings of an IQ score, no other measure has been found to be related to so many other behaviors of theoretical or practical significance."
E.ZIGLER & V.SEITZ, 1982, in B.B.Wolman,
Handbook of Human Intelligence. New York : Wiley DePublisher.

"Not only do personality differences affect intellectual development, but intellectual level also affects personality development."
Anne ANASTASI, 1983.

"....Luria's and Piaget's theories refer to similar psychological processes. It also appears that cognitive development, as described by those authors, is related to psychometric intelligence."
Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 37.

"....there are few human endeavours that could not be included in
the domain of intelligence, if one considered all of the correlates
of 'g'."
Sandra SCARR, 1985.

"....intellectually gifted children tend to be above average in such qualities as self-sufficiency and independence, energy and enthusiasm, and sociability (Janos & Robinson, 1985)."
J.RADFORD, 1990, Child Prodigies and Early Achievers.
New York : Free Press.

"....conservatism has, at least within that slice of the past that is known to social science, been associated with rather modest levels of general intelligence."
C.R.BRAND, 1986, in S. & Celia Modgil, Hans Eysenck: Consensus
and Controversy
. Brighton : Falmer.

"This study tested the hypothesis that psychopaths identified in a clinical population are characterized by no greater difficulties in controlling impulsiveness, planning ahead, and exercising flexibility (such as accomplishing cognitive shifts and avoiding perseverations) than are non-psychopathic, so-called normal controls selected from the same population.... One of the important features of the present study was attention to the role of intelligence in modulating performances on tasks thought to assess frontal lobe functions. [There were] significant effects of intelligence regardless of group assignment.... Undetected differences in intelligence between comparison groups, such as in the Gorenstein (1982, J.Abnormal Psychol.) study [in which male psychopaths appeared to lack frontal lobe integrity] could constitute a source of uncontrolled variance. Both Heilbrun (1982, J.Consulting & Clinical Psychol.) and Sutker et al. (1983, Psychol.Reports) reported that intelligence is an important moderator influencing behavior among psychopaths." Patricia B. SUTKER & A.N.ALLAIN, Jr., 1987, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 96.

"It seems very likely that no other mental ability factor or combination of factors, independent of g, has as many educationally, occupationally, and socially significant correlates as g."
A.R.JENSEN, 1987, in R.Ronning et al., The Influence of Cognitive
Psychology on Testing
. Hillsdale, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum.

"All told, g is to psychology what carbon is to chemistry."
C.R.BRAND, 1987, in S. & Celia Modgil, Arthur Jensen:
Consensus and Controversy
. Brighton : Falmer.

"Intelligence is an extremely important aspect of personality, and moderates and influences the expression of all other dimensions of personality."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1989, Personality and Individual Differences.

"[Long-stay and community-resident] schizophrenic patients were individually matched for age, sex and education with a healthy, normal subject [in Scotland]. Both schizophrenic samples scored significantly lower on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale than their respective control group [by, respectively, 31 and 13 IQ points]."
J.R.CRAWFORD et al., 1992, British Journal of Psychiatry 161.

"Contrary to certain stereotypes attached to athletes and intellectuals, physical co-ordination is positively correlated with IQ. Technical studies done by the US Department of Labor report a correlation of .35 between co-ordination and cognitive ability."
Daniel SELIGMAN, 1992, A Question of Intelligence:
the IQ Debate in America.
New York : Carol (Birch Lane).

"I hate the impudence of a claim that, in fifty minutes, you can judge and classify a human being's predestined fitness in life. I hate the pretentiousness of that claim. I hate the abuse of scientific method which it involves. I hate the sense of superiority which it creates and the sense of inferiority which it imposes. And so, while I honestly think that there is a considerable future for mental testing, if it is approached with something like the caution employed by the editors of the army report {by the US Army in 1922}, I believe also that the whole field is destined to be the happy hunting ground of quacks and snobs if loose-minded men are allowed to occupy positions of leadership much longer."
Walter LIPPMANN (American columnist), 1922. Reprinted in
N.Block & G.Dworkin, The IQ Controversy. New York : Pantheon.

"Every normal man, woman or child is....a genius at something as well as an idiot at something.... The preceding considerations have often appealed to me in looking at a procession of the Unemployed, and hearing someone whisper that they are mostly the Unemployable. That they are so actually I cannot help concurring. But need they be so necessarily? Remember that every one of these, too, is a genius at something - if we could only discover what. I cherish no illusion, indeed, that among them may be marching some 'mute, inglorious Milton, some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood'. For these are walks in life that appear to involve a large amount of g. But I am quite confident that every one of them could do something that would make him a treasure in some great industrial concern. And I see no reason why some should not have even become famous, in such occupations, for example, as those of dancers, jockeys, or players of popular games."
Charles SPEARMAN, 1925, addressing the British Association.

"That the conventional intelligence test has failed to predict who will do outstanding work in science (or any other field) there is little question. McKinnon's work is the most telling in this respect. He finds little or no connection between adult IQ and adult achievements above a minimum level, which lies somewhere in the region of IQ 120."
Liam HUDSON (soon afterwards Professor of Education,
University of Edinburgh), 1966. Contrary Imaginations.
London : Methuen.

"Intelligence must not be confused with IQ as measured by an IQ test."
W.BODMER (medical geneticist), 1973.

"....regarding IQ tests as measures of 'intelligence' is nonsensical."
L.J.KAMIN, 1981.

"The age of individually administered intelligence tests is finished. The end of an era is sad in some ways. I recall with nostalgia the thrill of learning how to administer the Wechsler-Bellevue, "the best test of intelligence available", when I was a graduate student 34 years ago. Almost all that I learned then has subsequently proved to be untrue....including now the value of the Wechsler tests."
J.D.KRUMBOLTZ, 1984, Personality & Individual Differences 4.

"....there is little reason to think that IQ tests are a representative selection of important tasks."
J.BARON, 1985, Rationality and Intelligence.
Cambridge University Press.

"....in the face of indications that a large and persistent average black-white difference in [intelligence] may indeed exist, more people are beginning to dispute the assumption that differences in intelligence are...of much practical significance, especially outside school settings." Linda GOTTFREDSON, 1987, Behavioral & Brain Sciences 10.

"Existing tests of gf (i.e. fluid general intelligence) perhaps give a slight edge to the person who is able to rape reality rather than to cherish it."
C.R.BRAND, 1987, 'The importance of intelligence'. In S. & C.
Modgil, Arthur Jensen: Consensus & Controversy. Brighton : Falmer.

"In general, the complexity of the cognitive functioning that a person is capable of appears to be unrelated to measured intelligence, whereas the extent to which complex cognition actually occurs is very markedly influenced by contextual and situational factors, and especially by the individual's possession of particular items of organized knowledge.... ....there are no firm grounds for concluding that knowing about a person's measured intelligence provides any basis at all for saying how or why that individual performs well or otherwise, or for identifying the detailed reasons underlying the person's success."
M.J.A.HOWE, 1988, British Journal of Psychology 79.

"The intelligence testing movement at the beginning of this century was not simply like Nazism in its racialist aspects - it was its ideological progenitor." John RUST & Susan GOLOMBOK, 1989, Modern Psychometrics. London : Routledge.

"IQ is a masturbative attempt to create a pseudo-scientific version of the soul, to fabricate some sort of stable mental essence. As an intellectual concept it has the rigidity and credibility of the goodness we are told resides in Mars bars."
A Guardian correspondent, quoted by
Stephen BATES, 'Intelligence Quotation 2',
Weekend Guardian, 18/19 vii 1993.

"In Emotional Intelligence (Bantam), author Daniel Goleman maintains there may be a more accurate predictor of success than IQ: how completely a person manages his or her emotions. Goleman quotes Aristotle: "Anyone can become angry-that is easy. But to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time for the right purpose and in the right way-this is not easy." According to the book, emotionally competent people can recognize their own emotions; they know they're happy or sad, and why they feel that way. ....How much of emotional intelligence is learned and how much is innate?....Fortunately, most of the skills identified by Goleman fall under the heading of simply good parenting....you help [children] learn what you do when you're mad....you don't kick your brother, you definitely don't bite Mom."
Lisa M. SODDERS, 1996, Topeka Kansas, 18 iii.

"To many people the task of 'picking winners' in horse races {as used by S.Ceci, cited by M.J.A.Howe, above} is not likely to be seen as a particularly relevant criterion of 'general practical competence' in the everyday world. It seems unwise, therefore, to imply [as had a previous correspondent] that recent work [finding no relation between IQ and 'picking winners'] has seriously undermined the findings from decades of study of 'general intellectual ability'."
Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 40.

"The theory of multiple intelligences (H.Gardner, 1983, Frames of Mind) highlights the attractive idea that there are qualitatively different kinds of cognitive processes subsumed under the umbrella term 'intelligence'. However, to the extent that it argues that cognitive ability in one domain has no predictive value for ability in other domains, it is fundamentally inadequate."
M.ANDERSON, 1987, Bulletin of British Psychol. Socy. 40 (A 103).

"....highly intelligent children are more task-oriented, e.g. less distractible and more controlled than their average-intelligence counterparts. In the Matching Familiar Figures Test, gifted children not only gave a higher percentage of correct answers, but also showed longer reaction times.... In sum, high intelligence, as assessed in our sample, seems to be related to a specific behavioural style profile characterized by low distractibility and high persistence."
T.CZESCHLIK, 1993, European Journal of Personality 7 (Wiley DePublisher).

"Dorner et al. computerized the problems facing a city manager of a mythical town called Lothausen; over a thousand variables are identifiable in this task, interacting with each other, and the subject's success is measured in terms of the amount of revenue at the end of the simulation. They found no correlation
between success in this task and IQ. However, the Dorner studies are hardly surprising: the reliability of the task is probably quite low, and the range of ability quite limited. Once could not have expected a high correlation with IQ, particularly as such a very lengthy task would require high motivation, and probably cognitive abilities other than IQ, but not tested."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1995, Genius: the Natural History of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.

"IQ does predict educational and occupational success (and much else besides), rather better than the popular alternatives of social class or family background."
N.J.MACKINTOSH, 1995, 'Insight into intelligence.' Nature 377, 19 x.

(iii) Intelligence and educational attainment

"To argue that wherever attainments are meagre, ability must also be low, will always be precarious. Poor health, poor homes, irregular attendance [at school], lack of interest, want of will - these are far commoner as causes of inability to spell and calculate than are inherent weakness of intellect and genuine defect of mind. Certainly, the dull are usually backward; but the backward are not necessarily dull."
Cyril BURT, 1921.
"It is often overlooked in present-day debate in educational circles that the attempt to measure intelligence, in which Burt played so prominent a part, so far from being an attempt at conserving upper and middle class privileges, constituted an attack on these interests. If talents are, at any rate so some extent, innate, so the argument ran, then it would be iniquitous to debar working-class children from educational opportunity merely because their parents could not afford to pay for adequate schooling and tuition." Anita GREGORY, 1975, introducing Sir Cyril Burt's ESP and Psychology. London : Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

"Just what [the Thorndike Test] measures, I do not know. Whether it is intelligence or not it is hard to say until one defines exactly what one means by intelligence. But I do know that it indicates more definitely and accurately than anything we are familiar with whether the boy will succeed in Columbia College {in New York, soon to be Columbia University}.... Since the introduction of the Thorndike Test the percentage of men who are forced out on account of poor scholarship has been cut in half, although our scholarship requirements have been lifted during this interval."
Dean HAWKES, 1924, Columbia Alumni News 15.

"Children with low IQ's almost always do poorly in school, while children with high IQ's cover the range from excellent down to poor. For school work, as for many other correlates of IQ, intelligence is necessary but not sufficient. Another way to put this is to say that a low IQ predicts poor performance more reliably than a high one predicts good performance."
R.J.HERRNSTEIN, 1973, IQ in the Meritocracy. London : Allen Lane.

"IQ at age five-and-a-half accounts for 50% of the variance in Mathematics scores at sixteen-and-a-half years of age. This is a sobering finding for those educational advisers who have been abandoning the use of tests of general intelligence over the past few years."
W.YULE et al. (reporting on their study of children growing up on
the Isle of Wight), 1982, Personality & Individual Differences 3.

"....Although g(eneral intelligence) cannot account for all the variance in educational level, it accounts for more than any other sources of variance, independent of g, that we have been able to discover." A.R.JENSEN, 1986, Journal of Vocational Behavior 29.

"Achievement motivation and general ability [tested by Advanced Progressive Matrices] showed a very strong influence on scholastic achievement [in 1138 students at Kasetart University, Thailand]. Adjustment, especially home adjustment and health adjustment, showed slight influences, whilst social adjustment and emotional adjustment did not show any influence at all."
A.PETCHPUD, 1988, to 24th International Congress of Psychology
in Sydney (T187).

"There is a substantial minority of angry parents, who see their children of moderate ability {having 'failed' the eleven-plus examination, with its IQ component} deprived of any opportunity of a grammar school education. There is good reason for believing that many such children would achieve more in grammar school than the theoretically more able children from poorer homes."
A.MARWICK, 1968, Britain in the Century of Total War. (Citing as authority Professor Peacock, Dept Economics, Univ.Edinburgh, 1964.)

"....the IQ was 'validated' by selecting the items so that they would predict 'success' at college - [and thus it] is 100% a statistical artefact of this method of validation."
H.PUTNAM, 1973, Cognition 2.

"....concepts of intelligence refer to measures developed in particular school-related contexts for children and young adults, measures which do not validly assess the multidimensional adaptive functioning of mid- and later adulthood."
R.N.EMDE, 1982, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 23.

"As we do no good for the sick by shattering thermometers, we do no good for the deficient by proscribing the use of those instruments that measure the extent and distribution of their deficiencies."
Personality & Individual Differences 2.

"The early testers believed that tests would open doors to disadvantaged people, not close them. And that, by and large, is what tests have done, enabling millions of people from poor or deprived backgrounds to develop their abilities better than the circumstances of birth would otherwise have allowed."
R.J.HERRNSTEIN, 1983, New Scientist, 28 vi.

"A question naturally arises about the motives of white middle-class liberals who criticize the use of tests in education.... It is surely not coincidental that the children of middle-class parents are, on average, less intelligent than their parents.... Middle-class parents have a selfish interest in minimizing the use of measures of the general factor [g] and dismissing the importance of its correlates."
L.G.HUMPHREYS, 1986, Journal of Vocational Behaviour 29.

(iv) Intelligence, occupational success and social mobility.

"In the very first issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology, which appeared in 1917, Terman describes a study in which he used a variation of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test to predict the success of police officers and fire fighters in San Jose."
F.J.LANDY & D.A.TRUMBO, 1980, The Psychology of Work Behaviour.
Homewood, Illinois : Dorsey.

"In a study by Ball (1938), ratings on a standardized scale of occupational status were obtained for a sample of about 200 men who had taken a group intelligence test when they were children. The time interval between the testing and the measure of status was 14 years in some cases and 19 years in other cases. For the group with a 14-year interval, the correlation between IQ and occupational status was .57, whereas for the group with a 19-year interval the correlation was .71. The higher correlation for the latter group, which was the older group, suggests that with time there is a tendency towards achieving a closer correspondence between occupational status and tested intelligence."
H.L.MINTON & F.W.SCHNEIDER, 1980, Differential Psychology.
Monterey, California : Wadsworth (Brooks/Cole).

"[By the mid-1950's, the men in [Lewis] Terman's 'Gifted Group' (mean IQ 151 in childhood)] had above-average incomes. ....when the median earnings of American professionals and managers was around $6,000, the men in the Gifted Group {though still only around age 35} made $9,640 on average."
Daniel SELIGMAN, 1992, A Question of Intelligence:
the IQ Debate in America.
New York : Carol (Birch Lane).

"Greatest inter-generational mobility in occupational status was reported by subjects who obtained high scores on both the IQ measure and the Machiavellianism Scale, but least upward mobility was reported by subjects who scored in the Low IQ- High Machiavellianism quadrant (p<.001)."
J.C.TOUHEY, 1973, British J. Social & Clinical Psychology 12.

"{In our study of 200 Indian farmers, we found a correlation of .40 between farmers' economic growth rates and their measured intelligence (using Raven's Progressive Matrices).}.... Overall, then, the major conclusion to be drawn from the present study is that Indian farmers are very much like the businessmen of the West. The better motivated and the more intelligent make the most material progress. There appear to be some invariants in human nature after all that strongly underlie and, hence, strongly limit what we can do in bringing about a better world."
S.SINGH & J.J.RAY, 1980,
Economic Development & Cultural Change 29.

"[In F.L.Schmidt & J.E.Hunter's analyses of 535 occupations in the USA] the correlations between verbal and mathematical reasoning abilities and occupational competence were highest for managerial and professional jobs, lowest for semi-skilled and unskilled ones; but, even in the latter case, they were still high enough to have practical impact. For skilled workers - white collar or blue-the correlations were highest for jobs like repairman in which problem- solving is an essential element; lowest for jobs like dental hygienist in which routine procedures are followed."
Barbara LERNER, 1983, 'Test scores as measures of human capital'.
In R.B.Cattell, Intelligence and National Achievement.
Washington, DC : Institute for the Study of Man.

"Hunter & Schmidt (1982) have....estimated the cost-effectiveness of using tests for job selection on a national scale. They estimate, for example, that the difference in yearly productivity between
(1) random assignment of the workforce to jobs, and
(2) assignment based on a test with an average true validity of only .45- applied in a working population of 90 million-would be about $169 billion." A.R.JENSEN, 1984.

"Recent studies have shown that ability tests are valid across all jobs in predicting job proficiency.... if cognitive ability tests are combined with psychomotor ability tests, then the average validity is .53.... for entry-level jobs, predictors other than ability have validity so much lower that substitution would mean massive economic loss."
J.E.HUNTER & Ronda F. HUNTER, 1984, Psychological Bulletin 96.

"....the personality traits that contribute to being a good researcher and to being a good teacher are independent. The only variables loading positively on both dimensions are intelligence and leadership...."
Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 38.

"The predictive validity of g generally increases with job complexity and is highest in those occupations involving the least automatization of performance demands, and the greatest amount of specialized training, constant new learning, judgment, novel problem solving and responsibility."
A.R.JENSEN, 1986, Journal of Vocational Behavior 29.

"For Keith Hope's study, As Others See Us [1985, Cambridge University Press], a random sample of some 600 Scottish boys (and an equal number girls....) who had been tested when they were 11 years old were followed up when they were 28..... The results are broadly similar to those of Jencks and others for the United States.... Sixty per cent of Scottish inter-generational social mobility is explained by IQ"
John RAVEN, 1986, American Journal of Education.

"Data show that at most only 10 to 20 per cent of the general population possesses the intelligence level required for minimally acceptable performance as a physician. This contrasts with percentages of around 40 and 80%, respectively, for general duty nurse and licensed practical nurse. The occupation of physician is singled out here because it has been a favourite example, among academics seeking to debunk the importance of intelligence in social life."
Linda S. GOTTFREDSON, 1986, Journal of Vocational Behavior 29.

"On average, American workers can tell themselves that their pay would be 20% higher (or lower) if their g rating was one standard deviation higher (or lower)."
Daniel SELIGMAN, 1987, Fortune, 3 viii.
"The correlation between a boy's teenage IQ and his adult occupational status is a potent .65 (McCall, 1977, Science 197; Waller, 1971, Social Biology 18). Between his father's occupational status and his own at middle age [it is] a relatively modes .35 or .40 (Duncan et al., 1972, Socioeconomic Background and Achievement). The dollar value of IQ differences has been pointed up in a sizeable number of studies. A Census Bureau study of veterans tested in 1964, when the men were in their early thirties, showed that a 15-point IQ differences had translated into an 11 percent earnings difference (Jencks et al.,1979, Who Gets Ahead?). One famous study examined the careers of brothers who grew up together in Kalamazoo, Michigan, and had similar educational levels....an adolescent IQ difference of 15 points was associated with a 14 percent average difference in earnings at ages 35-39, even when the brothers had the same amount of education (Jencks et al., op.cit.).... ....By law, the lowest 10 percent of the population (roughly those below IQ 80) are not allowed to enlist [in the US Armed Forces]. In the early 1990's, with the armed forces cutting back in size, the group between the 10th and 30th percentiles was also pretty much screened out. The result was a substantial increase in the quality of recruits. Says a 1989 Defense Department report: "Service members with high scores on the Armed Forces Qualification Test and with high school diplomas display behaviours that benefit the Armed Forces....People with high AFQT scores are likely to achieve skill proficiency earlier in their first enlistment than those with low scores." ....in addition [higher-scorers] do better on detailed measures of "hands-on performance." "AFQT scores have been found to predict the success rate of soldiers performing operator maintenance on the TOW launcher, a wire-guided missile system....In a tank gunnery test....soldiers {above IQ 105} hit 67 percent of their targets, while soldiers {of IQ 80-90} hit only 53 per cent. [Compared to lower-scoring teams, higher-scoring] teams scored 75 percent more tank equivalent kills using the M-60."
Daniel SELIGMAN, 1992, A Question of Intelligence:
the IQ Debate in America.
New York : Carol (Birch Lane).

"Anybody who devotes himself to making money, body and soul, can scarcely fail to make himself rich. Very little brains will do."
Samuel SMILES, 1859,
Self Help.

"The widespread assumption among all parties to the debate that IQ is an important determinant of economic success does not rest on compelling empirical evidence. Quite the contrary."
S.BOWLES & H.GINTIS, 1976, Schooling in Capitalist America.
London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.

"....the great majority of all jobs can be learned through practice by almost any literate person.... How hard people work, and with what dexterity and cleverness, depends on how much other people can require them to do and how much they can dominate other people."
R.COLLINS, 1979, The Credential Society. New York : Academic.

"Strong performance on IQ tests is simply a reflection of a certain kind of family environment, and once that latter variable is held constant, IQ becomes only a weak predictor of economic success."
S.ROSE, L.KAMIN & R.C.LEWONTIN, 1984, Not in Our Genes.
Harmondsworth : Penguin.

"....hard work in school is the great equalizer; it can substitute for talent."
T.M.TOMLINSON & H.J.WALBERG, 1986, in their own edited volume,
Academic Work and Educational Excellence. Berkeley : McCutchen.

"I seriously doubt that Jensen's IQ, or that of any other great scientist, does justice to the scientific contributions made."
R.J.STERNBERG, 1987, in S. & Celia Modgil, Arthur Jensen:
Consensus and Controversy
. Brighton : Falmer.

"'Smart' appliances incorporating microprocessors, robots, computerized banking, automatic check-out lines, automatic inventory control and many other similar technological advances are progressively making it possible for many tasks to be carried out by people of lower IQ than was heretofore needed."
W.R.HAVENDER, 1987, in S. & Celia Modgil, Arthur Jensen:
Consensus and Controversy
. Brighton : Falmer.

"There is a general agreement among anthropologists and sociologists of education that social status is so highly correlated with IQ that it casts suspicion on IQ scores as reflecting intelligence rather than socioeconomic status."
Frederick ERICKSON (Professor of Education, University of Pennsylvania), 1988, interviewed by D.Goleman, New York Times (Education Life, Section 12), 10 iv.

"It is undoubtedly true that there are aspects of intelligence in the....everyday sense of the word that are not reflected in academic achievements. However, intelligence tests measure only a narrow range of skills. They do not provide any additional predictive information about a graduate's potential job performance, beyond what is already available from existing academic performance measures."
M.J.A.HOWE, 1988, The Psychologist 1, i.

"....[Western intelligence tests] may be of use in industrializing societies, but this does not mean that they measure any general capacity of individuals. In fact, there is little evidence that IQ scores bear much relationship to occupational success or creative achievement in our own society."
Philip K. BROCK, 1988, Rethinking Psychological Anthropology.
New York : W.H.Freeman.

"As part of their study of practical intelligence, Sternberg and his collaborators have developed measures of "tacit knowledge" in various domains, especially business management. In these measures, individuals are given written scenarios of various work-related situations and then asked to rank a number of options for dealing with the situation presented. The results show that tacit knowledge predicts criteria such as job performance fairly well, even though it is relatively independent of intelligence test scores and other common selection measures. This work has its critics (Jensen and Schmidt & Hunter, 1993, Current Directions in Psychol. Science 2).
Extract from Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns - Report of a Task Force established by the Board of the Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association, 1995. Washington, DC : APA Science Directorate.

"....most of the variance in 'rate of performance with practice' is quite narrowly task-specific and does not reflect a general learning ability independent of psychometric g."
A.R.JENSEN, 1986, 'g: artefact or reality?' Journal of Vocational Behavior 29.

"A total of 676 executives were counselled [and given psychological tests, from 1988 to 1991]. [They were] about 42 years old and had been with their last organisation for just over eleven years.... Job tenure {viz. staying in the same job for a long time....} was enhanced by being:
less intellectual (i.e. less intelligent (Factor B, 16PF)),
less conceptual (T7, O.P.Q.) and less innovative (T8),
more emotional, less extroverted and less entrepreneurial....
[However,] executives who achieved higher salaries tended to be:
more intelligent,
more willing to assume responsibility,
more people-oriented,
more entrepreneurial,
more experienced and
more able to promote themselves effectively."
Lea BRINDLE, 1992, 'Winners and losers in the career stakes'.
Human Resources, Spring.

"Arvey's (1986, J.Voc.B.29) job analysis is particularly informative in showing that job complexity is quintessentially a demand for g. His factor analysis of 65 job attributes for 140 jobs in the petrochemical industry showed that the major distinction among them was the degree of mental complexity they posed for workers. The first factor, accounting for 45% of the variance, was "Judgment and Reasoning."
Linda S. GOTTFREDSON, 1995, 'Why g matters: the complexity of everyday life.'

"....[the US Employment Service's General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) turns out to be a strong predictor of subsequent performance. Studies on the predictive value of the GATB for jobs have been extensively reviewed for the Labor Department by industrial psychologists John Hunter and Frank Schmidt....[they] estimate the validity of standardized tests as predictors of job performance in intellectually demanding jobs at about .53....When John Hartigan and Alexandra Wigdor made their own assessment of the GATB for the National Research Council, they significantly lowered Hunter and Schmidt's high estimates. Yet they too found a significant correlation of about .30 between test scores and job performance. Their conclusion was that the GATB was a modest but reliable predictor of job performance, and that it predicted better for some jobs than others."
Dinesh D'SOUZA, 1995, The End of Racism. New York : Free Press.

(v) Intelligence and society.
{See also Quotes XXVII and XXVIII.}

"Heredity redistributes the genes which make for superior achievement, high intelligence and great ability, and makes sure that within a few generations none of the existing boundaries between classes shall remain. If anything, it is social structure which makes social divisions permanent."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1973, The Inequality of Man.
London : Temple Smith.

"Division of labour is a hallmark of an advanced society, and this division largely takes place along intelligence lines."
H.J.EYSENCK, 1981, in H.J.Eysenck & L.J.Kamin,
The Battle for the Mind. London : Pan.

"....the radical left dismiss racial differences in intelligence test scores, but then use the same test scores as evidence that lead in the air is leadening the brains underneath the hair of our young. The extreme right-wing claim that naturally-occurring or inherited differences in intelligence test scores demonstrate the innate superiority of their offspring, who are therefore entitled to a massive input of environmental resources."
D.SHELLEY, 1984, Psychology News 39.

"Intelligence affects crime in that the individual of low intelligence is less aware of long-run consequences, less willing to defer present gratification, and less able to restrict impulsivity."
Linda S. GOTTFREDSON, 1986, Journal of Vocational Behavior 29.

"....in this society, women with IQs of 75 or below rearing children is hardly less than a personal tragedy for their offspring, who generally re-enact the pathetic life history of their parents."
A.R.JENSEN, 1989, 'A review of the Milwaukee
Project'. Developmental Review 9.

"IQ theory has seriously affected the lives of countless millions of people in the twentieth century, and it is no joke that, largely because of IQ theory a substantial proportion of people, perhaps a majority, have left, and are still leaving, school throughout the world, convinced they are incapable of learning anything very serious."
Behavioral & Brain Sciences 9.

"....one's initial surprise at finding that intelligent people tend to be socialists diminishes when one realises that, of course, intelligent people will tend to overvalue intelligence, and to suppose that we must owe all the advantages and opportunities of our civilisation to deliberate design rather than to following traditional rules."
F.A.HAYEK, 1988, The Fatal Conceit: the Errors of Socialism.
London : Routledge.

"[Some attach] a certain inherent value to a person depending on that person's intellectual abilities. Personally, I value most the standpoint that, although individuals differ in abilities, this cannot be translated in terms of "inferiority" or "superiority"."
W.E.CRUSIO (University of Heidelberg), 1990,
Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive 10.

"Before going on trial at Nuremberg, [13 Nazi leaders] were subjected to a broad range of tests. Hermann Goering tested at [IQ] 138; Franz von Papen at 134; and Albert Speer at 128. The lowest of the Nuremberg defendants was Julius Streicher, the gauleiter of Franconia, and even he was somewhat above average with an IQ of 106. As the figures forcefully remind us, it is a mistake to confuse IQ with human worth."
Daniel SELIGMAN, 1992, A Question of Intelligence:
the IQ Debate in America.
New York : Carol (Birch Lane).

"The fact that IQ is correlated with [education, employment, law-abidingness and achieved social status] is old stuff. But the links are very weak [-on average explaining less than10 per cent of the variance in behavior among a group of people]. Would you want to make your entire national policy around something that has less than a 10 per cent effect?.... IQ tests cannot be said to measure most of what we need to know about intelligence. Success of virtually any kind depends on much more. Our studies suggest that not having common sense can hamper your career. As an employer, I'd take common sense over a few IQ points.... In any field such as art, technology, teaching and science, creativity is at least as important as IQ."
R.J.Sternberg, 1994, discussing R.J.Herrnstein & C.Murray's The Bell Curve with W.F.Allman, US News & World Report, 24 x.

"Observing a correlation between a noisy measure of parenting skills, say, and some score on an ability test is a far cry from discovering an immutable law of nature. ....The claim implicitly advanced in [The Bell Curve] to have achieved a scientific understanding of the moral performance of the citizenry adequate to provide a foundation for social policy is breathtakingly dangerous. ....Try telling the newly energized Christian Right that access to morality is contingent on mental ability. Their response is likely to be, "God is not finished with us when he deals us our genetic hand.""
Glenn C. LOURY, 1994, National Review 46, 23, 5 xii.

"Poverty, in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth [tracking 12,000 young people since 1979, when they were 14 to 22 years old], is eight times more common among whites from poor backgrounds than among those who grew up in privilege - yet it's fifteen times more common at the low end of the IQ spectrum. Illegitimacy is twice as common among the poorest whites as among the most prosperous, but it's eight times as common among the dullest (IQ under 75) as it is among the brightest (IQ over 125). And males in the bottom half of the IQ distribution are nearly ten times as likely as those in the top half to find themselves in jail."
Geoffrey COWLEY, 1994, 'Testing the science of intelligence', Newsweek, 24 x.

"The most extensive clinical studies of neglectful mothers have been conducted by Norman Polansky, whose many years of research began with a sample drawn from rural Appalachia, subsequently replicated with an urban Philadelphia sample. He described the typical neglectful mother as follows:
She is of limited intelligence (IQ below 70), has failed to achieve more than an eighth-grade education, and has never held....employment.... She has at best a vague, or extremely limited idea of what her children need emotionally and physically. She seldom is able see things from the point of view of others and cannot take their needs into consideration when responding to a conflict they experience.
....The most extensive evidence describes the impulsiveness, inconsistency and confusion that mark the parenting style of many abusive parents [e.g. Smith et al., 1974, Brit.J.Psychiat. 125]. ....The inconsistency can reach mystifying proportions: one study of parent-child interactions found that children in abusing families had about the same chance of obtaining positive reinforcement for aggressive behaviors as for pro-social behaviors (Berger, 1980, Amer.J.Family Ther. 8). ....The reluctance of scholars and policymakers alike to look at the role of low intelligence in malparenting may properly be called scandalous."
R.J.HERRNSTEIN & C.MURRAY, 1994, The Bell Curve.
New York : Free Press.

"One evolutionary psychologist, Geoffrey Miller (1996, in C.Crawford, Evolution and Human Behaviour, L.Erlbaum), goes so far as to suggest that intelligence evolved as a courtship device."
Marek KOHN, 1995, The Race Gallery: the Return of Racial Science. London : Jonathan Cape.

"Today, as China is now known to have been embarked for the past six years on a vast programme of eugenics (in the Peking area), it is high time for the West to come to terms with IQ and with what is to be done about it. The last Western country to treat the g factor with as much contempt as do Britain and the USA today was Nazi Germany. With awe-inspiring indifference as to how to sustain Germany's national culture or win a world war, the Nazis ensured the last great migration of intelligence in the West-giving the USA 'the Bomb' in the process (e.g. Hobsbawm, 1994). (The Nazis thus reversed that original massive influx of entrepreneurial talent from which Prussia had so benefitted after the Massacre of St Bartholomew's Day in Paris.) Today, an equally serious question confronts the West: Can the triumph of Western liberal democracy be long sustained without taking intelligence seriously? Although the London School view of IQ has survived the Burt Affair, the importance of IQ and intelligence has still to be properly recognized."
C.R.BRAND, 1997, 'The importance of intelligence in Western societies.'
Journal of Biosocial Science (Special Issue, eds N.Mascie-Taylor & C.Brand).

What the people say.... and their masters

"When presented with ability, education and social background as factors for [upward social] mobility [in a poll reported by M.Harrop, 1980, Sociology 14] the [British] public overwhelmingly chose ability as the most important (79% of middle-class respondents and 62% of working-class); education was a poor second, at 15% and 25% respectively. Even among those who chose education as the most important, almost 70% saw the quality of education being dependent upon individual ability rather than social background. Hence the public have a very individualistic, or meritocratic view of mobility - in some contrast to that of most social scientists."
Ivan REID, 1989, Social Class Differences in Britain.
Glasgow/London : Collins/Fontana.

"[In our survey] only about 10% of American adults or of Irish adults thought that the kind of intelligence measured by intelligence tests matters more than anything else in life. The proportions who believed it matters a great deal were 50% of American adults and 40% of Irish adults; while nearly twice as high a proportion-over 20%-of Irish as of American adults thought it matters very little."
Patricia J. FONTES et al., 1983, Irish Journal of Education 17.

"A belief in individual differences in mental ability is....about as acceptable to most liberal opinion as a commitment to apartheid."
Mark COOK, 1984, Levels of Personality.
Eastbourne, Sussex : Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

"Miss Pauline Hyde, an out-placement consultant, told [a session of a conference of the Institute of Personnel Management] that many companies were probably making the wrong people redundant. She said that the personality profiles of more than 200 redundant executives indicated that they were significantly more intelligent, conscientious and imaginative than all other groups of society, but scored low in political and inter-personal skills."
Report by J.Spicer, 1987, The Times, 24 x.

"....the last twelve years have seen a peculiar inversion in conventional notions about brains as they relate to the White House. First came President Jimmy Carter to give intelligence a bad name. Then came President Reagan to elevate thick-headedness into some kind of mystical power."
Michael KINGSLEY, 1988, 'Brainily handicapped'. The Times, 30 vii.
{The 1992 Presidential Election victor had studied for a while
at University College, Oxford.}

"The late Leonid Brezhnev suffered clinical death in January, 1976, but was revived and ruled the Soviet Union in a virtual daze for six more years, a Soviet historian [Mr Roy Medvedyev] revealed yesterday [in Moscow News]. [Medvedyev writes: ] "he gradually found it more and more difficult to carry out the most simple protocol functions and could no longer understand what was going on around him".... The period of his rule is now officially condemned as one of social and economic stagnation."
The Times (Reuter), 8 ix 1988.

"Particularly high importance is attributed [by business studies graduates, five years after graduation] to self-organisation, oral communication, the ability to learn quickly and to prioritise issues.... Jobs in manufacturing industry seem to place particular emphasis on....creativity, putting ideas into practice, evaluating alternatives and critical thinking.... Particularly high demands in terms of numeracy, teamwork and co-operation are made by jobs in the commercial sector.... For those employed in the public sector, high importance is attached to communication."
Journal of European Industrial Training 13.

"Surveys consistently place intelligence, sense of humour, creativity and interesting personality above even such things as wealth and beauty in lists of desirable characteristics in both sexes (Buss, 1989, Behav.&Brain Sci.12; G.F.Miller, 1992). ....Miller suggests that men and women dare not step off the treadmill of selecting the wittiest, most creative and articulate person available with whom to mate (note that conventional 'intelligence' as measured by examinations is not what he is talking about)."
{Behav. & Brain Sci. article, c. 1994?}

"In a study conducted in San Jose (California), Okagaki and Sternberg (1993, Child Development) asked immigrant parents from Cambodia, Mexico, the Philippines and Vietnam, as well as native-born Anglo-Americans and Mexican-Americans, about their conceptions of child-rearing, appropriate teaching and children's intelligence. Parents from all groups except Anglo-Americans indicated that such characteristics as motivation, social skills and practical school skills were as or more important than cognitive characteristics for their conceptions of an intelligent first-grade child."
Extract from Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns-Report of a Task Force established by the Board of the Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association, 1995. Washington, DC : APA Science Directorate.

"[Women have perhaps been pushed] too far towards idealising intelligence over attributes such as endeavour, energy and good old-fashioned zest for life. We're in danger of over-prizing IQ, especially as women and mothers."
Madeleine KINGSLEY, 1995, 'Forget your IQ.' She, iii.


"In years to come, any defender of IQ will be smugly able to use the work of psychologists in the lead controversy {about whether lead in petrol lowered children's IQ's} to prove that objections to IQ tests are really ideological. When it suited the Left to use IQ they did it-as much as the eugenicists once did."
D.COHEN, 1983, Psychology News.

"Thanks to lazy industrialists and timid educational experts, we [in Britain] know more about the state of the nation's teeth than about the state of its intelligence."
C.R.BRAND, 1986, Times Higher Educational Supplement.

"To summarize the arguments that are brought forward and that do not add up:
1. Intelligence tests are supposed to measure intelligence, and
intelligence is undefined.
2. The definitions of the quality intelligence are contradictory.
3. Intelligence tests only measure the subject's ability to do
intelligence tests.
4. Intelligence tests measure nothing at all. (The quality they are
supposed to measure, intelligence, does not exist.)
5. The quality intelligence tests are supposed to measure,
intelligence, is not important.
6. Creativity is more important than intelligence.
7. Lateral thinking is more important than intelligence.
8. Other things are important as well as intelligence.
9. Intelligence tests are used to perpetuate race and class
10. The statistical background of intelligence tests is faulty and they are discredited.
11. Intelligence tests are unreliable....
12. Intelligence tests are unfair to underprivileged groups.
13. Intelligence tests have no predictive value at all.
14. Intelligence tests are self-fulfilling predictions.
15. Intelligence tests measure only the effect of social background.
16. Intelligence tests are of no value and can be disregarded.
17. Intelligence tests are used to label children.
18. Intelligence tests are used to prepare children for an unjust
When we see these arguments lined up, we begin to see a degree of overkill....
....I think that human intelligence is the most important thing we know of in the universe.... That is my chief value, my prejudice. What is yours?"
V.SEREBRIAKOFF, 1988, A Guide to Intelligence and Personality
. Carnforth, Lancashire : Parthenon.

"[Freud] recognized the power of human intelligence and the life force. Unfortunately, we know that intelligence is fought over, like a beautiful woman, by both drives [eros and thanatos], the one toward life and the other toward death."
Lowell RUBIN, 1991, in Joan Offerman-Zuckerberg,
Politics and Psychology. New York : Plenum.

"In Howard & Bray's (1988) longitudinal study of AT&T managers, IQ and ambition contributed about equally to career progress."
E.LOCKE, 1995, Personnel Psychology 48.

"Intelligence is the key to seeing into another person's predicament....I would like God to be supremely intelligent."
Edna O'BRIEN, 1993, BBC IV UK


(Compiled by Chris Brand, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.)

For more coverage of the importance and practical relevance (especially in education) of individual differences in intelligence, see:
BRAND, C.R. (1996) The g Factor.
Chichester : Wiley DePublisher.

"The nature and measurement of intelligence is a political hot potato. But Brand in this extremely readable, wide-ranging and up-to-date
book is not afraid to slaughter the shibboleths of modern "educationalists". This short book provides a great deal for thought
and debate."
Professor Adrian Furnham, University College London.
The book was first issued, in February, but then withdrawn, in April, by the 'publisher' because it was deemed to have infringed modern canons of
'political correctness.'
It received a perfectly favourable review in Nature (May 2, 1996, p. 33).

For a Summary of the book, Newsletters concerning the
de-publication affair, details of how to see the book for scholarly purposes, and others' comments and reviews,
see the Internet URL sites:

For Chris Brand's 'Get Real About Race!'-his popular exposition of his views on race and education in the Black
hip-hop music magazine 'downlow' (Autumn, 1996)-see:

A reminder of what is available in other Sections of 'P, B & S.'

Summary Index

(This resource manual of quotations about individual and group differences, compiled by
Mr C. R. Brand, is kept on the Internet and in Edinburgh University Psychology Department Library.)
Pages of Introduction
3 - 11 Full Index, indicating key questions in each Section.
12 - 14 Preface. - Why quotations? - Explanations and apologies.
15 - 51 Introduction: Questions, Arguments and Agreements in the study of Personality.
Some history, and a discussion of 'realism vs 'idealism.'
52 - 57 Introductory Quotes about the study of personality.
General problems
1 'Situational' vs 'personological' approaches to human variation.
2 'Nomothetic' vs 'idiographic', 'subjective' and relativistic approaches.
3 Personality dimensions - by factor analysis and otherwise.
4 'Superstructure' and 'infrastructure' - the 'mind/body problem'.
5 Nature vs Nurture? - Or Nature via Nurture?
6 The role of consciousness in personality and 'multiple personality'.
7 The 'folk psychology' of personality components.
8 The measurement of intelligence. - Does g exist?
9 The bases of intelligence. - What is the psychology of g?
10 The developmental origins of g differences. - The nature and nurture of g.
11 The importance of intelligence. - The psychotelics of g.
12 Piagetianism: Kant's last stand?
13 Cognitivism: 'The Emperor's New Mind?'
14 Neurosis, emotion and Neuroticism.
15 Psychosis, psychopathy and Psychoticism.
16 Crime and criminality.
17 Genius and creativity.
Popular proposals - psychoanalytic, phrenological and prophylactic
18 Psychoanalysis: 'Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire'?
19 Hemispherology: a twentieth-century phrenology?
20 Psycho-social Engineering: therapy, training or transformation?
Group differences
21 Age and ageing - especially, the role of g in 'life-span development'.
22 Psychological sex differences. - Do they exist? Must they exist?
23 Social class. - Does it matter any longer?
24 Racial and ethnic differences. - Their role in 'lifestyles' and cultural attainments.
Ideological issues
25 The psychology of politics and ideological extremism.
26 The politics of psychologists and allied co-workers.
27 Equality and Community: the 'utopian' package of political aims.
28 Freedom and Responsibility: the 'legitimist' package of political aims.
Pragmatic questions
29 Carry on differentializing?
30 Carry on psycho-testing?
Appendix: Factor Analysis. - 'Garbage in, garbage out'?


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